Xlib - C Language X Interface

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Xlib - C Language X Interface

X Consortium Standard

James Gettys

Digital Equipment Corporation Cambridge Research Laboratory

Robert W. Scheifler

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science

Chuck Adams

Tektronix, Inc.

Vania Joloboff

Open Software Foundation

Hideki Hiura

Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Bill McMahon

Hewlett-Packard Company

Ron Newman

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Al Tabayoyon

Tektronix, Inc.

Glenn Widener

Tektronix, Inc.

Shigeru Yamada

Fujitsu OSSI

X Version 11, Release 7.7

Copyright © 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1994, 1996, 2002 The Open Group

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files
(the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction,
including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following
conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
OPEN GROUP BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN
ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Except as contained in this notice, the name of The Open Group shall not
be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings
in this Software without prior written authorization from The Open Group.

Copyright © 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991 Digital Equipment Corporation

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this documentation for any
purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright
notice appears in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this
permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of
Digital and Tetronix not be used in in advertising or publicity pertaining
to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.
Digital and Tetronix make no representations about the suitability of the
software described herein for any purpose.
It is provided “as is” without express or implied warranty.

TekHVC is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments1. Introduction to XlibOverview of the X Window SystemErrorsStandard Header FilesGeneric Values and TypesNaming and Argument Conventions within XlibProgramming ConsiderationsCharacter Sets and EncodingsFormatting Conventions2. Display FunctionsOpening the DisplayObtaining Information about the Display, Image Formats, or ScreensDisplay MacrosImage Format Functions and MacrosScreen Information MacrosGenerating a NoOperation Protocol RequestFreeing Client-Created DataClosing the DisplayUsing X Server Connection Close OperationsUsing Xlib with ThreadsUsing Internal Connections3. Window FunctionsVisual TypesWindow AttributesBackground AttributeBorder AttributeGravity AttributesBacking Store AttributeSave Under FlagBacking Planes and Backing Pixel AttributesEvent Mask and Do Not Propagate Mask AttributesOverride Redirect FlagColormap AttributeCursor AttributeCreating WindowsDestroying WindowsMapping WindowsUnmapping WindowsConfiguring WindowsChanging Window Stacking OrderChanging Window Attributes4. Window Information FunctionsObtaining Window InformationTranslating Screen CoordinatesProperties and AtomsObtaining and Changing Window PropertiesSelections5. Pixmap and Cursor FunctionsCreating and Freeing PixmapsCreating, Recoloring, and Freeing Cursors6. Color Management FunctionsColor StructuresColor StringsRGB Device String SpecificationRGB Intensity String SpecificationDevice-Independent String SpecificationsColor Conversion Contexts and Gamut MappingCreating, Copying, and Destroying ColormapsMapping Color Names to ValuesAllocating and Freeing Color CellsModifying and Querying Colormap CellsColor Conversion Context FunctionsGetting and Setting the Color Conversion Context of a ColormapObtaining the Default Color Conversion ContextColor Conversion Context MacrosModifying Attributes of a Color Conversion ContextCreating and Freeing a Color Conversion ContextConverting between Color SpacesCallback FunctionsPrototype Gamut Compression ProcedureSupplied Gamut Compression ProceduresPrototype White Point Adjustment ProcedureSupplied White Point Adjustment ProceduresGamut Querying FunctionsRed, Green, and Blue QueriesCIELab QueriesCIELuv QueriesTekHVC QueriesColor Management ExtensionsColor SpacesAdding Device-Independent Color SpacesQuerying Color Space Format and PrefixCreating Additional Color SpacesParse String CallbackColor Specification Conversion CallbackFunction SetsAdding Function SetsCreating Additional Function Sets7. Graphics Context FunctionsManipulating Graphics Context/StateUsing Graphics Context Convenience RoutinesSetting the Foreground, Background, Function, or Plane MaskSetting the Line Attributes and DashesSetting the Fill Style and Fill RuleSetting the Fill Tile and StippleSetting the Current FontSetting the Clip RegionSetting the Arc Mode, Subwindow Mode, and Graphics Exposure8. Graphics FunctionsClearing AreasCopying AreasDrawing Points, Lines, Rectangles, and ArcsDrawing Single and Multiple PointsDrawing Single and Multiple LinesDrawing Single and Multiple RectanglesDrawing Single and Multiple ArcsFilling AreasFilling Single and Multiple RectanglesFilling a Single PolygonFilling Single and Multiple ArcsFont MetricsLoading and Freeing FontsObtaining and Freeing Font Names and InformationComputing Character String SizesComputing Logical ExtentsQuerying Character String SizesDrawing TextDrawing Complex TextDrawing Text CharactersDrawing Image Text CharactersTransferring Images between Client and Server9. Window and Session Manager FunctionsChanging the Parent of a WindowControlling the Lifetime of a WindowManaging Installed ColormapsSetting and Retrieving the Font Search PathGrabbing the ServerKilling ClientsControlling the Screen SaverControlling Host AccessAdding, Getting, or Removing HostsChanging, Enabling, or Disabling Access Control10. EventsEvent TypesEvent StructuresEvent MasksEvent Processing OverviewKeyboard and Pointer EventsPointer Button EventsKeyboard and Pointer EventsWindow Entry/Exit EventsNormal Entry/Exit EventsGrab and Ungrab Entry/Exit EventsInput Focus EventsNormal Focus Events and Focus Events While GrabbedFocus Events Generated by GrabsKey Map State Notification EventsExposure EventsExpose EventsGraphicsExpose and NoExpose EventsWindow State Change EventsCirculateNotify EventsConfigureNotify EventsCreateNotify EventsDestroyNotify EventsGravityNotify EventsMapNotify EventsMappingNotify EventsReparentNotify EventsUnmapNotify EventsVisibilityNotify EventsStructure Control EventsCirculateRequest EventsConfigureRequest EventsMapRequest EventsResizeRequest EventsColormap State Change EventsClient Communication EventsClientMessage EventsPropertyNotify EventsSelectionClear EventsSelectionRequest EventsSelectionNotify Events11. Event Handling FunctionsSelecting EventsHandling the Output BufferEvent Queue ManagementManipulating the Event QueueReturning the Next EventSelecting Events Using a Predicate ProcedureSelecting Events Using a Window or Event MaskPutting an Event Back into the QueueSending Events to Other ApplicationsGetting Pointer Motion HistoryHandling Protocol ErrorsEnabling or Disabling SynchronizationUsing the Default Error Handlers12. Input Device FunctionsPointer GrabbingKeyboard GrabbingResuming Event ProcessingMoving the PointerControlling Input FocusManipulating the Keyboard and Pointer SettingsManipulating the Keyboard Encoding13. Locales and Internationalized Text FunctionsX Locale ManagementLocale and Modifier DependenciesVariable Argument ListsOutput MethodsOutput Method OverviewOutput Method FunctionsX Output Method ValuesOutput Context FunctionsOutput Context ValuesCreating and Freeing a Font SetObtaining Font Set MetricsDrawing Text Using Font SetsInput MethodsInput Method OverviewInput Method ManagementInput Method FunctionsInput Method ValuesInput Context FunctionsInput Context ValuesInput Method Callback SemanticsEvent FilteringGetting Keyboard InputInput Method ConventionsString Constants14. Inter-Client Communication FunctionsClient to Window Manager CommunicationManipulating Top-Level WindowsConverting String ListsSetting and Reading Text PropertiesSetting and Reading the WM_NAME PropertySetting and Reading the WM_ICON_NAME PropertySetting and Reading the WM_HINTS PropertySetting and Reading the WM_NORMAL_HINTS PropertySetting and Reading the WM_CLASS PropertySetting and Reading the WM_TRANSIENT_FOR PropertySetting and Reading the WM_PROTOCOLS PropertySetting and Reading the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS PropertySetting and Reading the WM_ICON_SIZE PropertyUsing Window Manager Convenience FunctionsClient to Session Manager CommunicationSetting and Reading the WM_COMMAND PropertySetting and Reading the WM_CLIENT_MACHINE PropertyStandard ColormapsStandard Colormap Properties and AtomsSetting and Obtaining Standard Colormaps15. Resource Manager FunctionsResource File SyntaxResource Manager Matching RulesQuarksCreating and Storing DatabasesMerging Resource DatabasesLooking Up ResourcesStoring into a Resource DatabaseEnumerating Database EntriesParsing Command Line Options16. Application Utility FunctionsUsing Keyboard Utility FunctionsKeySym Classification MacrosUsing Latin-1 Keyboard Event FunctionsAllocating Permanent StorageParsing the Window GeometryManipulating RegionsCreating, Copying, or Destroying RegionsMoving or Shrinking RegionsComputing with RegionsDetermining if Regions Are Empty or EqualLocating a Point or a Rectangle in a RegionUsing Cut BuffersDetermining the Appropriate Visual TypeManipulating ImagesManipulating BitmapsUsing the Context ManagerA. Xlib Functions and Protocol RequestsB. X Font CursorsC. ExtensionsBasic Protocol Support RoutinesHooking into XlibHooks into the LibraryHooks onto Xlib Data StructuresGC CachingGraphics BatchingWriting Extension StubsRequests, Replies, and Xproto.hRequest FormatStarting to Write a Stub ProcedureLocking Data StructuresSending the Protocol Request and ArgumentsVariable Length ArgumentsRepliesSynchronous CallingAllocating and Deallocating MemoryPortability ConsiderationsDeriving the Correct Extension OpcodeD. Compatibility FunctionsX Version 11 Compatibility FunctionsSetting Standard PropertiesSetting and Getting Window Sizing HintsGetting and Setting an XStandardColormap StructureParsing Window GeometryGetting the X Environment DefaultsX Version 10 Compatibility FunctionsDrawing and Filling Polygons and CurvesAssociating User Data with a ValueGlossaryIndex

List of Tables

A.1. Protocol requests made by each Xlib functionA.2. Xlib functions which use each Protocol Request

Acknowledgments

The design and implementation of the first 10 versions of X
were primarily the work of three individuals: Robert Scheifler of the
MIT Laboratory for Computer Science and Jim Gettys of Digital
Equipment Corporation and Ron Newman of MIT, both at MIT
Project Athena.
X version 11, however, is the result of the efforts of
dozens of individuals at almost as many locations and organizations.
At the risk of offending some of the players by exclusion,
we would like to acknowledge some of the people who deserve special credit
and recognition for their work on Xlib.
Our apologies to anyone inadvertently overlooked.

Release 1

Our thanks does to Ron Newman (MIT Project Athena),
who contributed substantially to the
design and implementation of the Version 11 Xlib interface.

Our thanks also goes to Ralph Swick (Project Athena and Digital) who kept
it all together for us during the early releases.
He handled literally thousands of requests from people everywhere
and saved the sanity of at least one of us.
His calm good cheer was a foundation on which we could build.

Our thanks also goes to Todd Brunhoff (Tektronix) who was “loaned”
to Project Athena at exactly the right moment to provide very capable
and much-needed assistance during the alpha and beta releases.
He was responsible for the successful integration of sources
from multiple sites;
we would not have had a release without him.

Our thanks also goes to Al Mento and Al Wojtas of Digital's ULTRIX
Documentation Group.
With good humor and cheer,
they took a rough draft and made it an infinitely better and more useful
document.
The work they have done will help many everywhere.
We also would like to thank Hal Murray (Digital SRC) and
Peter George (Digital VMS) who contributed much
by proofreading the early drafts of this document.

Our thanks also goes to Jeff Dike (Digital UEG), Tom Benson,
Jackie Granfield, and Vince Orgovan (Digital VMS) who helped with the
library utilities implementation;
to Hania Gajewska (Digital UEG-WSL) who,
along with Ellis Cohen (CMU and Siemens),
was instrumental in the semantic design of the window manager properties;
and to Dave Rosenthal (Sun Microsystems) who also contributed to the protocol
and provided the sample generic color frame buffer device-dependent code.

The alpha and beta test participants deserve special recognition and thanks
as well.
It is significant
that the bug reports (and many fixes) during alpha and beta test came almost
exclusively from just a few of the alpha testers, mostly hardware vendors
working on product implementations of X.
The continued public
contribution of vendors and universities is certainly to the benefit
of the entire X community.

Our special thanks must go to Sam Fuller, Vice-President of Corporate
Research at Digital, who has remained committed to the widest public
availability of X and who made it possible to greatly supplement MIT's
resources with the Digital staff in order to make version 11 a reality.
Many of the people mentioned here are part of the Western
Software Laboratory (Digital UEG-WSL) of the ULTRIX Engineering group
and work for Smokey Wallace, who has been vital to the project's success.
Others not mentioned here worked on the toolkit and are acknowledged
in the X Toolkit documentation.

Of course,
we must particularly thank Paul Asente, formerly of Stanford University
and now of Digital UEG-WSL, who wrote W, the predecessor to X,
and Brian Reid, formerly of Stanford University and now of Digital WRL,
who had much to do with W's design.

Finally, our thanks goes to MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation,
and IBM for providing the environment where it could happen.

Release 4

Our thanks go to Jim Fulton (MIT X Consortium) for designing and
specifying the new Xlib functions for Inter-Client Communication
Conventions (ICCCM) support.

We also thank Al Mento of Digital for his continued effort in
maintaining this document and Jim Fulton and Donna Converse (MIT X Consortium)
for their much-appreciated efforts in reviewing the changes.

Release 5

The principal authors of the Input Method facilities are
Vania Joloboff (Open Software Foundation) and Bill McMahon (Hewlett-Packard).
The principal author of the rest of the internationalization facilities
is Glenn Widener (Tektronix). Our thanks to them for keeping their
sense of humor through a long and sometimes difficult design process.
Although the words and much of the design are due to them, many others
have contributed substantially to the design and implementation.
Tom McFarland (HP) and Frank Rojas (IBM) deserve particular recognition
for their contributions. Other contributors were:
Tim Anderson (Motorola), Alka Badshah (OSF), Gabe Beged-Dov (HP),
Chih-Chung Ko (III), Vera Cheng (III), Michael Collins (Digital),
Walt Daniels (IBM), Noritoshi Demizu (OMRON), Keisuke Fukui (Fujitsu),
Hitoshoi Fukumoto (Nihon Sun), Tim Greenwood (Digital), John Harvey (IBM),
Hideki Hiura (Sun), Fred Horman (AT&T), Norikazu Kaiya (Fujitsu),
Yuji Kamata (IBM),
Yutaka Kataoka (Waseda University), Ranee Khubchandani (Sun), Akira Kon (NEC),
Hiroshi Kuribayashi (OMRON), Teruhiko Kurosaka (Sun), Seiji Kuwari (OMRON),
Sandra Martin (OSF), Narita Masahiko (Fujitsu), Masato Morisaki (NTT),
Nelson Ng (Sun),
Takashi Nishimura (NTT America), Makato Nishino (IBM),
Akira Ohsone (Nihon Sun), Chris Peterson (MIT), Sam Shteingart (AT&T),
Manish Sheth (AT&T), Muneiyoshi Suzuki (NTT), Cori Mehring (Digital),
Shoji Sugiyama (IBM), and Eiji Tosa (IBM).

We are deeply indebted to Tatsuya Kato (NTT),
Hiroshi Kuribayashi (OMRON), Seiji Kuwari (OMRON), Muneiyoshi Suzuki (NTT),
and Li Yuhong (OMRON) for producing one of the first complete
sample implementation of the internationalization facilities, and
Hiromu Inukai (Nihon Sun), Takashi Fujiwara (Fujitsu), Hideki Hiura (Sun),
Yasuhiro Kawai (Oki Technosystems Laboratory), Kazunori Nishihara (Fuji Xerox),
Masaki Takeuchi (Sony), Katsuhisa Yano (Toshiba),
Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony Corporation) for producing the another complete
sample implementation of the internationalization facilities.

The principal authors (design and implementation) of the Xcms color
management facilities are Al Tabayoyon (Tektronix)
and Chuck Adams (Tektronix).
Joann Taylor (Tektronix), Bob Toole (Tektronix),
and Keith Packard (MIT X Consortium) also
contributed significantly to the design. Others who contributed are:
Harold Boll (Kodak), Ken Bronstein (HP), Nancy Cam (SGI),
Donna Converse (MIT X Consortium), Elias Israel (ISC), Deron Johnson (Sun),
Jim King (Adobe), Ricardo Motta (HP), Chuck Peek (IBM),
Wil Plouffe (IBM), Dave Sternlicht (MIT X Consortium), Kumar Talluri (AT&T),
and Richard Verberg (IBM).

We also once again thank Al Mento of Digital for his work in formatting
and reformatting text for this manual, and for producing man pages.
Thanks also to Clive Feather (IXI) for proof-reading and finding a
number of small errors.

Release 6

Stephen Gildea (X Consortium) authored the threads support.
Ovais Ashraf (Sun) and Greg Olsen (Sun) contributed substantially
by testing the facilities and reporting bugs in a timely fashion.

The principal authors of the internationalization facilities, including
Input and Output Methods, are Hideki Hiura (SunSoft) and
Shigeru Yamada (Fujitsu OSSI).
Although the words and much of the design are due to them, many others
have contributed substantially to the design and implementation.
They are: Takashi Fujiwara (Fujitsu), Yoshio Horiuchi (IBM),
Makoto Inada (Digital), Hiromu Inukai (Nihon SunSoft),
Song JaeKyung (KAIST), Franky Ling (Digital), Tom McFarland (HP),
Hiroyuki Miyamoto (Digital), Masahiko Narita (Fujitsu),
Frank Rojas (IBM), Hidetoshi Tajima (HP), Masaki Takeuchi (Sony),
Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony), Masaki Wakao (IBM), Katsuhisa Yano(Toshiba) and
Jinsoo Yoon (KAIST).

The principal producers of the sample implementation of the
internationalization facilities are:
Jeffrey Bloomfield (Fujitsu OSSI), Takashi Fujiwara (Fujitsu),
Hideki Hiura (SunSoft), Yoshio Horiuchi (IBM),
Makoto Inada (Digital), Hiromu Inukai (Nihon SunSoft),
Song JaeKyung (KAIST), Riki Kawaguchi (Fujitsu),
Franky Ling (Digital), Hiroyuki Miyamoto (Digital),
Hidetoshi Tajima (HP), Toshimitsu Terazono (Fujitsu),
Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony), Masaki Wakao (IBM),
Shigeru Yamada (Fujitsu OSSI) and Katsuhisa Yano (Toshiba).

The coordinators of the integration, testing, and release of this
implementation of the internationalization facilities are
Nobuyuki Tanaka (Sony) and Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony).

Others who have contributed to the architectural design or
testing of the sample implementation of the
internationalization facilities are:
Hector Chan (Digital), Michael Kung (IBM), Joseph Kwok (Digital),
Hiroyuki Machida (Sony), Nelson Ng (SunSoft), Frank Rojas (IBM),
Yoshiyuki Segawa (Fujitsu OSSI), Makiko Shimamura (Fujitsu),
Shoji Sugiyama (IBM), Lining Sun (SGI), Masaki Takeuchi (Sony),
Jinsoo Yoon (KAIST) and Akiyasu Zen (HP).

Jim Gettys
Cambridge Research Laboratory
Digital Equipment Corporation
Robert W. Scheifler
Laboratory for Computer Science
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Release 7

This document is made available to you in modern formats such as HTML and PDF
thanks to the efforts of Matt Dew, who converted the original troff sources to
DocBook/XML and edited them into shape; along with Gaetan Nadon and
Alan Coopersmith, who set up the formatting machinery in the libX11 builds and
performed further editing of the DocBook markup.

Chapter 1. Introduction to Xlib

Table of Contents

Overview of the X Window SystemErrorsStandard Header FilesGeneric Values and TypesNaming and Argument Conventions within XlibProgramming ConsiderationsCharacter Sets and EncodingsFormatting Conventions

The X Window System is a network-transparent window system that was
designed at MIT. X display servers run on computers with either
monochrome or color bitmap display hardware. The server distributes
user input to and accepts output requests from various client programs
located either on the same machine or elsewhere in the network. Xlib
is a C subroutine library that application programs (clients) use to
interface with the window system by means of a stream connection.
Although a client usually runs on the same machine as the X server
it is talking to, this need not be the case.

Xlib − C Language X Interface is a reference
guide to the low-level C language interface to the X Window System
protocol. It is neither a tutorial nor a user’s guide to programming
the X Window System. Rather, it provides a detailed description of
each function in the library as well as a discussion of the related
background information. Xlib − C Language X Interface
assumes a basic understanding of a graphics window system and of the C
programming language. Other higher-level abstractions (for example,
those provided by the toolkits for X) are built on top of the Xlib
library. For further information about these higher-level libraries,
see the appropriate toolkit documentation.
The X Window System Protocol provides the
definitive word on the behavior of X.
Although additional information appears here, the protocol document is
the ruling document.

To provide an introduction to X programming, this chapter discusses:

Overview of the X Window System

Some of the terms used in this book are unique to X,
and other terms that are common to other window systems
have different meanings in X. You may find it helpful to refer to
the glossary,
which is located at the end of the book.

The X Window System supports one or more screens containing
overlapping windows or subwindows.

A screen is a physical monitor and hardware
that can be color, grayscale, or monochrome.
There can be multiple screens for each display or workstation.
A single X server can provide display services for any number of screens.
A set of screens for a single user with one keyboard and one pointer
(usually a mouse) is called a display.

All the windows in an X server are arranged in strict hierarchies.
At the top of each hierarchy is a root window,
which covers each of the display screens.
Each root window is partially or completely covered by child windows.
All windows, except for root windows, have parents.
There is usually at least one window for each application program.


Child windows may in turn have their own children.
In this way,
an application program can create an arbitrarily deep tree
on each screen.
X provides graphics, text, and raster operations for windows.

A child window can be larger than its parent.
That is, part or all of
the child window can extend beyond the boundaries of the parent,
but all output to a window is clipped by its parent.

If several children of a window have overlapping locations,
one of the children is considered to be on top of or raised over the
others, thus obscuring them.
Output to areas covered by other windows is suppressed by the window
system unless the window has backing store.
If a window is obscured by a second window,
the second window obscures only those ancestors of the second window
that are also ancestors of the first window.


A window has a border zero or more pixels in width, which can
be any pattern (pixmap) or solid color you like.
A window usually but not always has a background pattern,
which will be repainted by the window system when uncovered.
Child windows obscure their parents,
and graphic operations in the parent window usually
are clipped by the children.

Each window and pixmap has its own coordinate system.
The coordinate system has the X axis horizontal and the Y axis vertical
with the origin [0, 0] at the upper-left corner.
Coordinates are integral,
in terms of pixels,
and coincide with pixel centers.
For a window,
the origin is inside the border at the inside, upper-left corner.

X does not guarantee to preserve the contents of windows.
When part or all of a window is hidden and then brought back onto the screen,
its contents may be lost.
The server then sends the client program an
Expose
event to notify it that part or all of the window needs to be repainted.
Programs must be prepared to regenerate the contents of windows on demand.





X also provides off-screen storage of graphics objects,
called pixmaps.
Single plane (depth 1) pixmaps are sometimes referred to as
bitmaps.
Pixmaps can be used in most graphics functions interchangeably with
windows and are used in various graphics operations to define patterns or tiles.
Windows and pixmaps together are referred to as drawables.

Most of the functions in Xlib just add requests to an output buffer.
These requests later execute asynchronously on the X server.
Functions that return values of information stored in
the server do not return (that is, they block)
until an explicit reply is received or an error occurs.
You can provide an error handler,
which will be called when the error is reported.


If a client does not want a request to execute asynchronously,
it can follow the request with a call to
XSync,
which blocks until all previously buffered
asynchronous events have been sent and acted on.
As an important side effect,
the output buffer in Xlib is always flushed by a call to any function
that returns a value from the server or waits for input.








Many Xlib functions will return an integer resource ID,
which allows you to refer to objects stored on the X server.
These can be of type
Window,
Font,
Pixmap,
Colormap,
Cursor,
and
GContext,
as defined in the file
<X11/X.h>.



These resources are created by requests and are destroyed
(or freed) by requests or when connections are closed.
Most of these resources are potentially sharable between
applications, and in fact, windows are manipulated explicitly by
window manager programs.
Fonts and cursors are shared automatically across multiple screens.
Fonts are loaded and unloaded as needed and are shared by multiple clients.
Fonts are often cached in the server.
Xlib provides no support for sharing graphics contexts between applications.


Client programs are informed of events.
Events may either be side effects of a request (for example, restacking windows
generates
Expose
events) or completely asynchronous (for example, from the keyboard).
A client program asks to be informed of events.
Because other applications can send events to your application,
programs must be prepared to handle (or ignore) events of all types.

Input events (for example, a key pressed or the pointer moved)
arrive asynchronously from the server and are queued until they are
requested by an explicit call (for example,
XNextEvent
or
XWindowEvent).
In addition, some library
functions (for example,
XRaiseWindow)
generate
Expose
and
ConfigureRequest
events.
These events also arrive asynchronously, but the client may

wish to explicitly wait for them by calling
XSync
after calling a function that can cause the server to generate events.

Errors

Some functions return
Status,
an integer error indication.
If the function fails, it returns a zero.
If the function returns a status of zero,
it has not updated the return arguments.

Because C does not provide multiple return values,
many functions must return their results by writing into client-passed storage.

By default, errors are handled either by a standard library function
or by one that you provide.
Functions that return pointers to strings return NULL pointers if
the string does not exist.

The X server reports protocol errors at the time that it detects them.
If more than one error could be generated for a given request,
the server can report any of them.

Because Xlib usually does not transmit requests to the server immediately
(that is, it buffers them), errors can be reported much later than they
actually occur.
For debugging purposes, however,
Xlib provides a mechanism for forcing synchronous behavior
(see section 11.8.1).
When synchronization is enabled,
errors are reported as they are generated.

When Xlib detects an error,
it calls an error handler,
which your program can provide.
If you do not provide an error handler,
the error is printed, and your program terminates.

Standard Header Files

The following include files are part of the Xlib standard:

<X11/Xlib.h>

This is the main header file for Xlib.
The majority of all Xlib symbols are declared by including this file.
This file also contains the preprocessor symbol
XlibSpecificationRelease.

This symbol is defined to have the 6 in this release of the standard.
(Release 5 of Xlib was the first release to have this symbol.)

<X11/X.h>

This file declares types and constants for the X protocol that are
to be used by applications. It is included automatically from
<X11/Xlib.h>
so application code should never need to
reference this file directly.

<X11/Xcms.h>

This file contains symbols for much of the color management facilities
described in chapter 6.
All functions, types, and symbols with the prefix "Xcms",
plus the Color Conversion Contexts macros, are declared in this file.
<X11/Xlib.h>
must be included before including this file.

<X11/Xutil.h>

This file declares various functions, types, and symbols used for
inter-client communication and application utility functions,
which are described in chapters
14 and
16.
<X11/Xlib.h> must be included before including this file.

<X11/Xresource.h>

This file declares all functions, types, and symbols for the
resource manager facilities, which are described in
chapter 15.
<X11/Xlib.h>
must be included before including this file.

<X11/Xatom.h>

This file declares all predefined atoms,
which are symbols with the prefix "XA_".

<X11/cursorfont.h>

This file declares the cursor symbols for the standard cursor font,
which are listed in Appendix B.
All cursor symbols have the prefix "XC_".

<X11/keysymdef.h>

This file declares all standard KeySym values,
which are symbols with the prefix "XK_".
The KeySyms are arranged in groups, and a preprocessor symbol controls
inclusion of each group. The preprocessor symbol must be defined
prior to inclusion of the file to obtain the associated values.
The preprocessor symbols are
XK_MISCELLANY,
XK_XKB_KEYS,
XK_3270,
XK_LATIN1,
XK_LATIN2,
XK_LATIN3,
XK_LATIN4,
XK_KATAKANA,
XK_ARABIC,
XK_CYRILLIC,
XK_GREEK,
XK_TECHNICAL,
XK_SPECIAL,
XK_PUBLISHING,
XK_APL,
XK_HEBREW,
XK_THAI, and
XK_KOREAN.

<X11/keysym.h>

This file defines the preprocessor symbols
XK_MISCELLANY,
XK_XKB_KEYS,
XK_LATIN1,
XK_LATIN2,
XK_LATIN3,
XK_LATIN4, and
XK_GREEK
and then includes <X11/keysymdef.h>.

<X11/Xlibint.h>

This file declares all the functions, types, and symbols used for
extensions, which are described in Appendix C.
This file automatically includes
<X11/Xlib.h>.

<X11/Xproto.h>

This file declares types and symbols for the basic X protocol,
for use in implementing extensions.
It is included automatically from
<X11/Xlibint.h>,
so application and extension code should never need to
reference this file directly.

<X11/Xprotostr.h>

This file declares types and symbols for the basic X protocol,
for use in implementing extensions.
It is included automatically from
<X11/Xproto.h>,
so application and extension code should never need to
reference this file directly.

<X11/X10.h>

This file declares all the functions, types, and symbols used for the
X10 compatibility functions, which are described in
Appendix D.

Generic Values and Types

The following symbols are defined by Xlib and used throughout the manual:




  • Xlib defines the type
    Bool
    and the Boolean values
    True
    and
    False.


  • None
    is the universal null resource ID or atom.


  • The type
    XID
    is used for generic resource IDs.


  • The type XPointer is defined to be char *
    and is used as a generic opaque pointer to data.

Naming and Argument Conventions within Xlib

Xlib follows a number of conventions for the naming and syntax of the functions.
Given that you remember what information the function requires,
these conventions are intended to make the syntax of the functions more
predictable.

The major naming conventions are:

  • To differentiate the X symbols from the other symbols,
    the library uses mixed case for external symbols.
    It leaves lowercase for variables and all uppercase for user macros,
    as per existing convention.

  • All Xlib functions begin with a capital X.

  • The beginnings of all function names and symbols are capitalized.

  • All user-visible data structures begin with a capital X.
    More generally,
    anything that a user might dereference begins with a capital X.

  • Macros and other symbols do not begin with a capital X.
    To distinguish them from all user symbols,
    each word in the macro is capitalized.

  • All elements of or variables in a data structure are in lowercase.
    Compound words, where needed, are constructed with underscores (_).

  • The display argument, where used, is always first in the argument list.

  • All resource objects, where used, occur at the beginning of the argument list
    immediately after the display argument.

  • When a graphics context is present together with
    another type of resource (most commonly, a drawable), the
    graphics context occurs in the argument list after the other
    resource.
    Drawables outrank all other resources.

  • Source arguments always precede the destination arguments in the argument list.

  • The x argument always precedes the y argument in the argument list.

  • The width argument always precedes the height argument in the argument list.

  • Where the x, y, width, and height arguments are used together,
    the x and y arguments always precede the width and height arguments.

  • Where a mask is accompanied with a structure,
    the mask always precedes the pointer to the structure in the argument list.

Programming Considerations

The major programming considerations are:

  • Coordinates and sizes in X are actually 16-bit quantities.
    This decision was made to minimize the bandwidth required for a
    given level of performance.
    Coordinates usually are declared as an
    int
    in the interface.
    Values larger than 16 bits are truncated silently.
    Sizes (width and height) are declared as unsigned quantities.

  • Keyboards are the greatest variable between different
    manufacturers' workstations.
    If you want your program to be portable,
    you should be particularly conservative here.

  • Many display systems have limited amounts of off-screen memory.
    If you can, you should minimize use of pixmaps and backing
    store.

  • The user should have control of their screen real estate.
    Therefore, you should write your applications to react to window management
    rather than presume control of the entire screen.
    What you do inside of your top-level window, however,
    is up to your application.
    For further information,
    see chapter 14
    and the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual.

Character Sets and Encodings

Some of the Xlib functions make reference to specific character sets
and character encodings.
The following are the most common:

X Portable Character Set

A basic set of 97 characters,
which are assumed to exist in all locales supported by Xlib.
This set contains the following characters:

a..z A..Z 0..9 !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^_`{|}~ <space>, <tab>, and <newline>

This set is the left/lower half
of the graphic character set of ISO8859-1 plus space, tab, and newline.
It is also the set of graphic characters in 7-bit ASCII plus the same
three control characters.
The actual encoding of these characters on the host is system dependent.

Host Portable Character Encoding

The encoding of the X Portable Character Set on the host.
The encoding itself is not defined by this standard,
but the encoding must be the same in all locales supported by Xlib on the host.
If a string is said to be in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
then it only contains characters from the X Portable Character Set,
in the host encoding.

Latin-1

The coded character set defined by the ISO8859-1 standard.

Latin Portable Character Encoding

The encoding of the X Portable Character Set using the Latin-1 codepoints
plus ASCII control characters.
If a string is said to be in the Latin Portable Character Encoding,
then it only contains characters from the X Portable Character Set,
not all of Latin-1.

STRING Encoding

Latin-1, plus tab and newline.

POSIX Portable Filename Character Set

The set of 65 characters,
which can be used in naming files on a POSIX-compliant host,
that are correctly processed in all locales.
The set is:

a..z A..Z 0..9 ._-

Formatting Conventions

Xlib − C Language X Interface uses the
following conventions:

  • Global symbols are printed in
    thisspecialfont.
    These can be either function names,
    symbols defined in include files, or structure names.
    When declared and defined,
    function arguments are printed in italics.
    In the explanatory text that follows,
    they usually are printed in regular type.

  • Each function is introduced by a general discussion that
    distinguishes it from other functions.
    The function declaration itself follows,
    and each argument is specifically explained.
    Although ANSI C function prototype syntax is not used,
    Xlib header files normally declare functions using function prototypes
    in ANSI C environments.
    General discussion of the function, if any is required,
    follows the arguments.
    Where applicable,
    the last paragraph of the explanation lists the possible
    Xlib error codes that the function can generate.
    For a complete discussion of the Xlib error codes,
    see section 11.8.2.

  • To eliminate any ambiguity between those arguments that you pass and those that
    a function returns to you,
    the explanations for all arguments that you pass start with the word
    specifies or, in the case of multiple arguments, the word specify.
    The explanations for all arguments that are returned to you start with the
    word returns or, in the case of multiple arguments, the word return.
    The explanations for all arguments that you can pass and are returned start
    with the words specifies and returns.

  • Any pointer to a structure that is used to return a value is designated as
    such by the _return suffix as part of its name.
    All other pointers passed to these functions are
    used for reading only.
    A few arguments use pointers to structures that are used for
    both input and output and are indicated by using the _in_out suffix.

Chapter 2. Display Functions

Table of Contents

Opening the DisplayObtaining Information about the Display, Image Formats, or ScreensDisplay MacrosImage Format Functions and MacrosScreen Information MacrosGenerating a NoOperation Protocol RequestFreeing Client-Created DataClosing the DisplayUsing X Server Connection Close OperationsUsing Xlib with ThreadsUsing Internal Connections

Before your program can use a display, you must establish a connection
to the X server.
Once you have established a connection,
you then can use the Xlib macros and functions discussed in this chapter
to return information about the display.
This chapter discusses how to:

  • Open (connect to) the display

  • Obtain information about the display, image formats, or screens

  • Generate a
    NoOperation
    protocol request

  • Free client-created data

  • Close (disconnect from) a display

  • Use X Server connection close operations

  • Use Xlib with threads

  • Use internal connections

Opening the Display

To open a connection to the X server that controls a display, use
XOpenDisplay.

Display *XOpenDisplay(char *display_name);


display_name

Specifies the hardware display name, which determines the display
and communications domain to be used.
On a POSIX-conformant system, if the display_name is NULL,
it defaults to the value of the DISPLAY environment variable.

The encoding and interpretation of the display name are
implementation-dependent.
Strings in the Host Portable Character Encoding are supported;
support for other characters is implementation-dependent.
On POSIX-conformant systems,
the display name or DISPLAY environment variable can be a string in the format:


	protocol/hostname:number.screen_number


protocol

Specifies a protocol family or an alias for a protocol family. Supported
protocol families are implementation dependent. The protocol entry is
optional. If protocol is not specified, the / separating protocol and
hostname must also not be specified.


hostname

Specifies the name of the host machine on which the display is physically
attached.
You follow the hostname with either a single colon (:) or a double colon (::).


number

Specifies the number of the display server on that host machine.
You may optionally follow this display number with a period (.).
A single CPU can have more than one display.
Multiple displays are usually numbered starting with zero.


screen_number

Specifies the screen to be used on that server.
Multiple screens can be controlled by a single X server.
The screen_number sets an internal variable that can be accessed by
using the
DefaultScreen
macro or the
XDefaultScreen
function if you are using languages other than C
(see section 2.2.1).

For example, the following would specify screen 1 of display 0 on the
machine named “dual-headed”:

dual-headed:0.1

The
XOpenDisplay
function returns a
Display
structure that serves as the
connection to the X server and that contains all the information
about that X server.
XOpenDisplay
connects your application to the X server through TCP
or DECnet communications protocols,
or through some local inter-process communication protocol.


If the protocol is specified as "tcp", "inet", or "inet6", or
if no protocol is specified and the hostname is a host machine name and a single colon (:)
separates the hostname and display number,
XOpenDisplay
connects using TCP streams. (If the protocol is specified as "inet", TCP over
IPv4 is used. If the protocol is specified as "inet6", TCP over IPv6 is used.
Otherwise, the implementation determines which IP version is used.)
If the hostname and protocol are both not specified,
Xlib uses whatever it believes is the fastest transport.
If the hostname is a host machine name and a double colon (::)
separates the hostname and display number,
XOpenDisplay
connects using DECnet.
A single X server can support any or all of these transport mechanisms
simultaneously.
A particular Xlib implementation can support many more of these transport
mechanisms.


If successful,
XOpenDisplay
returns a pointer to a
Display
structure,
which is defined in
<X11/Xlib.h>.



If
XOpenDisplay
does not succeed, it returns NULL.
After a successful call to
XOpenDisplay,
all of the screens in the display can be used by the client.
The screen number specified in the display_name argument is returned
by the
DefaultScreen
macro (or the
XDefaultScreen
function).
You can access elements of the
Display
and
Screen
structures only by using the information macros or functions.
For information about using macros and functions to obtain information from
the
Display
structure,
see section 2.2.1.

X servers may implement various types of access control mechanisms
(see section 9.8).

Obtaining Information about the Display, Image Formats, or Screens

The Xlib library provides a number of useful macros
and corresponding functions that return data from the
Display
structure.
The macros are used for C programming,
and their corresponding function equivalents are for other language bindings.
This section discusses the:

  • Display macros

  • Image format functions and macros

  • Screen information macros


All other members of the
Display
structure (that is, those for which no macros are defined) are private to Xlib
and must not be used.
Applications must never directly modify or inspect these private members of the
Display
structure.

The
XDisplayWidth,
XDisplayHeight,
XDisplayCells,
XDisplayPlanes,
XDisplayWidthMM,
and
XDisplayHeightMM
functions in the next sections are misnamed.
These functions really should be named Screenwhatever
and XScreenwhatever, not Displaywhatever or XDisplaywhatever.
Our apologies for the resulting confusion.

Display Macros

Applications should not directly modify any part of the
Display
and
Screen
structures.
The members should be considered read-only,
although they may change as the result of other operations on the display.

The following lists the C language macros,
their corresponding function equivalents that are for other language bindings,
and what data both can return.

AllPlanes

unsigned long XAllPlanes(void);



Both return a value with all bits set to 1 suitable for use in a plane argument to
a procedure.





Both
BlackPixel
and
WhitePixel
can be used in implementing a monochrome application.
These pixel values are for permanently allocated entries in the default
colormap.
The actual RGB (red, green, and blue) values are settable on some screens
and, in any case, may not actually be black or white.
The names are intended to convey the expected relative intensity of the colors.

BlackPixel(display, screen_number);

unsigned long XBlackPixel(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.

Both return the black pixel value for the specified screen.

WhitePixel(display, screen_number);

unsigned long XWhitePixel(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.

Both return the white pixel value for the specified screen.

ConnectionNumber(display);

int XConnectionNumber(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return a connection number for the specified display.
On a POSIX-conformant system,
this is the file descriptor of the connection.

DefaultColormap(display, screen_number);

Colormap XDefaultColormap(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the default colormap ID for allocation on the specified screen.
Most routine allocations of color should be made out of this colormap.

DefaultDepth(display, screen_number);

int XDefaultDepth(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the depth (number of planes) of the default root window for the
specified screen.
Other depths may also be supported on this screen (see
XMatchVisualInfo).


To determine the number of depths that are available on a given screen, use
XListDepths.

int *XListDepths(Display *display, int screen_number, int *count_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.


count_return

Returns the number of depths.

The
XListDepths
function returns the array of depths
that are available on the specified screen.
If the specified screen_number is valid and sufficient memory for the array
can be allocated,
XListDepths
sets count_return to the number of available depths.
Otherwise, it does not set count_return and returns NULL.
To release the memory allocated for the array of depths, use
XFree.

DefaultGC(display, screen_number);

GC XDefaultGC(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the default graphics context for the root window of the
specified screen.
This GC is created for the convenience of simple applications
and contains the default GC components with the foreground and
background pixel values initialized to the black and white
pixels for the screen, respectively.
You can modify its contents freely because it is not used in any Xlib
function.
This GC should never be freed.

DefaultRootWindow(display);

Window XDefaultRootWindow(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the root window for the default screen.

DefaultScreenOfDisplay(display);

Screen *XDefaultScreenOfDisplay(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return a pointer to the default screen.

ScreenOfDisplay(display, screen_number);

Screen *XScreenOfDisplay(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return a pointer to the indicated screen.

DefaultScreen(display);

int XDefaultScreen(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the default screen number referenced by the
XOpenDisplay
function.
This macro or function should be used to retrieve the screen number
in applications that will use only a single screen.

DefaultVisual(display, screen_number);

Visual *XDefaultVisual(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the default visual type for the specified screen.
For further information about visual types,
see section 3.1.

DisplayCells(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayCells(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the number of entries in the default colormap.

DisplayPlanes(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayPlanes(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the depth of the root window of the specified screen.
For an explanation of depth,
see the glossary.

DisplayString(display);

char *XDisplayString(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the string that was passed to
XOpenDisplay
when the current display was opened.
On POSIX-conformant systems,
if the passed string was NULL, these return the value of
the DISPLAY environment variable when the current display was opened.

These are useful to applications that invoke the
fork
system call and want to open a new connection to the same display from the
child process as well as for printing error messages.

long XExtendedMaxRequestSize(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


The
XExtendedMaxRequestSize
function returns zero if the specified display does not support an
extended-length protocol encoding; otherwise,
it returns the maximum request size (in 4-byte units) supported
by the server using the extended-length encoding.
The Xlib functions
XDrawLines,
XDrawArcs,
XFillPolygon,
XChangeProperty,
XSetClipRectangles,
and
XSetRegion
will use the extended-length encoding as necessary, if supported
by the server. Use of the extended-length encoding in other Xlib
functions (for example,
XDrawPoints,
XDrawRectangles,
XDrawSegments,
XFillArcs,
XFillRectangles,
XPutImage)
is permitted but not required; an Xlib implementation may choose to
split the data across multiple smaller requests instead.

long XMaxRequestSize(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


The
XMaxRequestSize
function returns the maximum request size (in 4-byte units) supported
by the server without using an extended-length protocol encoding.
Single protocol requests to the server can be no larger than this size
unless an extended-length protocol encoding is supported by the server.
The protocol guarantees the size to be no smaller than 4096 units
(16384 bytes).
Xlib automatically breaks data up into multiple protocol requests
as necessary for the following functions:
XDrawPoints,
XDrawRectangles,
XDrawSegments,
XFillArcs,
XFillRectangles,
and
XPutImage.

LastKnownRequestProcessed(display);

unsigned long XLastKnownRequestProcessed(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both extract the full serial number of the last request known by Xlib
to have been processed by the X server.
Xlib automatically sets this number when replies, events, and errors
are received.

NextRequest(display);

unsigned long XNextRequest(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both extract the full serial number that is to be used for the next
request.
Serial numbers are maintained separately for each display connection.

ProtocolVersion(display);

int XProtocolVersion(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the major version number (11) of the X protocol associated with
the connected display.

ProtocolRevision(display);

int XProtocolRevision(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the minor protocol revision number of the X server.

QLength(display);

int XQLength(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the length of the event queue for the connected display.
Note that there may be more events that have not been read into
the queue yet (see
XEventsQueued).

RootWindow(display, screen_number);

Window XRootWindow(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.





Both return the root window.
These are useful with functions that need a drawable of a particular screen
and for creating top-level windows.

ScreenCount(display);

int XScreenCount(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the number of available screens.

ServerVendor(display);

char *XServerVendor(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return a pointer to a null-terminated string that provides
some identification of the owner of the X server implementation.
If the data returned by the server is in the Latin Portable Character Encoding,
then the string is in the Host Portable Character Encoding.
Otherwise, the contents of the string are implementation-dependent.

VendorRelease(display);

int XVendorRelease(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return a number related to a vendor's release of the X server.

Image Format Functions and Macros

Applications are required to present data to the X server
in a format that the server demands.
To help simplify applications,
most of the work required to convert the data is provided by Xlib
(see sections
8.7 and
16.8).


The
XPixmapFormatValues
structure provides an interface to the pixmap format information
that is returned at the time of a connection setup.
It contains:

typedef struct {
	int depth;
	int bits_per_pixel;
	int scanline_pad;
} XPixmapFormatValues;

To obtain the pixmap format information for a given display, use
XListPixmapFormats.

XPixmapFormatValues *XListPixmapFormats(Display *display, int *count_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


count_return

Returns the number of pixmap formats that are supported by the display.

The
XListPixmapFormats
function returns an array of
XPixmapFormatValues
structures that describe the types of Z format images supported
by the specified display.
If insufficient memory is available,
XListPixmapFormats
returns NULL.
To free the allocated storage for the
XPixmapFormatValues
structures, use
XFree.

The following lists the C language macros,
their corresponding function equivalents that are for other language bindings,
and what data they both return for the specified server and screen.
These are often used by toolkits as well as by simple applications.

ImageByteOrder(display);

int XImageByteOrder(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both specify the required byte order for images for each scanline unit in
XY format (bitmap) or for each pixel value in
Z format.
The macro or function can return either
LSBFirst
or
MSBFirst.

XBitmapUnit(display);

int XBitmapUnit(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Both return the size of a bitmap's scanline unit in bits.
The scanline is calculated in multiples of this value.

BitmapBitOrder(display);

int XBitmapBitOrder(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Within each bitmap unit, the left-most bit in the bitmap as displayed
on the screen is either the least significant or most significant bit in the
unit.
This macro or function can return
LSBFirst
or
MSBFirst.

BitmapPad(display);

int XBitmapPad(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.



Each scanline must be padded to a multiple of bits returned
by this macro or function.

DisplayHeight(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayHeight(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return an integer that describes the height of the screen
in pixels.

DisplayHeightMM(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayHeightMM(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the height of the specified screen in millimeters.

DisplayWidth(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayWidth(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the width of the screen in pixels.

DisplayWidthMM(display, screen_number);

int XDisplayWidthMM(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.



Both return the width of the specified screen in millimeters.

Screen Information Macros

The following lists the C language macros,
their corresponding function equivalents that are for other language bindings,
and what data they both can return.
These macros or functions all take a pointer to the appropriate screen
structure.

BlackPixelOfScreen(screen);

unsigned long XBlackPixelOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the black pixel value of the specified screen.

XWhitePixelOfScreen(screen);

unsigned long XWhitePixelOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the white pixel value of the specified screen.

CellsOfScreen(screen);

int XCellsOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the number of colormap cells in the default colormap
of the specified screen.

DefaultColormapOfScreen(screen);

Colormap XDefaultColormapOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the default colormap of the specified screen.

DefaultDepthOfScreen(screen);

int XDefaultDepthOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the depth of the root window.

DefaultGCOfScreen(screen);

GC XDefaultGCOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return a default graphics context (GC) of the specified screen,
which has the same depth as the root window of the screen.
The GC must never be freed.

XDefaultVisualOfScreen(screen);

Visual *XDefaultVisualOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the default visual of the specified screen.
For information on visual types,
see section 3.1.

DoesBackingStore(screen);

int XDoesBackingStore(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return a value indicating whether the screen supports backing
stores.
The value returned can be one of
WhenMapped,
NotUseful,
or
Always
(see section 3.2.4).

DoesSaveUnders(screen);

Bool XDoesSaveUnders(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return a Boolean value indicating whether the
screen supports save unders.
If
True,
the screen supports save unders.
If
False,
the screen does not support save unders
(see section 3.2.5).

DisplayOfScreen(screen);

Display *XDisplayOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the display of the specified screen.

ScreenNumberOfScreen(screen);

long XScreenNumberOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.

The
XScreenNumberOfScreen
function returns the screen index number of the specified screen.

EventMaskOfScreen(screen);

long XEventMaskOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the event mask of the root window for the specified screen
at connection setup time.

WidthOfScreen(screen);

int XWidthOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the width of the specified screen in pixels.

HeightOfScreen(screen);

int XHeightOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the height of the specified screen in pixels.

WidthMMOfScreen(screen);

int XWidthMMOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the width of the specified screen in millimeters.

HeightMMOfScreen(screen);

int XHeightMMOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the height of the specified screen in millimeters.

MaxCmapsOfScreen(screen);

int XMaxCmapsOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the maximum number of installed colormaps supported
by the specified screen
(see section 9.3).

MinCmapsOfScreen(screen);

int XMinCmapsOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the minimum number of installed colormaps supported
by the specified screen
(see section 9.3).

PlanesOfScreen(screen);

int XPlanesOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the depth of the root window.

RootWindowOfScreen(screen);

Window XRootWindowOfScreen(Screen *screen);


screen

Specifies the appropriate
Screen
structure.



Both return the root window of the specified screen.

Generating a NoOperation Protocol Request

To execute a
NoOperation
protocol request, use
XNoOp.

XNoOp(Display *display);

display

Specifies the connection to the X server.

The
XNoOp
function sends a
NoOperation
protocol request to the X server,
thereby exercising the connection.

Freeing Client-Created Data

To free in-memory data that was created by an Xlib function, use
XFree.

XFree(void *data);


data

Specifies the data that is to be freed.

The
XFree
function is a general-purpose Xlib routine that frees the specified data.
You must use it to free any objects that were allocated by Xlib,
unless an alternate function is explicitly specified for the object.
A NULL pointer cannot be passed to this function.

Closing the Display

To close a display or disconnect from the X server, use
XCloseDisplay.

XCloseDisplay(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.

The
XCloseDisplay
function closes the connection to the X server for the display specified in the
Display
structure and destroys all windows, resource IDs
(Window,
Font,
Pixmap,
Colormap,
Cursor,
and
GContext),
or other resources that the client has created
on this display, unless the close-down mode of the client has been changed
(see
XSetCloseDownMode).
Therefore, these windows, resource IDs, and other resources should never be
referenced again or an error will be generated.
Before exiting, you should call
XCloseDisplay
explicitly so that any pending errors are reported as
XCloseDisplay
performs a final
XSync
operation.

XCloseDisplay
can generate a
BadGC
error.

Xlib provides a function to permit the resources owned by a client
to survive after the client's connection is closed.
To change a client's close-down mode, use
XSetCloseDownMode.

XSetCloseDownMode(Display *display, int close_mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


close_mode

Specifies the client close-down mode.
You can pass
DestroyAll,
RetainPermanent,
or
RetainTemporary.

The
XSetCloseDownMode function
defines what will happen to the client's resources at connection close.
A connection starts in
DestroyAll
mode.
For information on what happens to the client's resources when the
close_mode argument is
RetainPermanent
or
RetainTemporary,
see section 2.6.

XSetCloseDownMode
can generate a
BadValue
error.

Using X Server Connection Close Operations

When the X server's connection to a client is closed
either by an explicit call to
XCloseDisplay
or by a process that exits, the X server performs the following
automatic operations:

  • It disowns all selections owned by the client
    (see
    XSetSelectionOwner).

  • It performs an
    XUngrabPointer
    and
    XUngrabKeyboard
    if the client has actively grabbed the pointer
    or the keyboard.

  • It performs an
    XUngrabServer
    if the client has grabbed the server.

  • It releases all passive grabs made by the client.

  • It marks all resources (including colormap entries) allocated
    by the client either as permanent or temporary,
    depending on whether the close-down mode is
    RetainPermanent
    or
    RetainTemporary.
    However, this does not prevent other client applications from explicitly
    destroying the resources (see
    XSetCloseDownMode).

When the close-down mode is
DestroyAll,
the X server destroys all of a client's resources as follows:

  • It examines each window in the client's save-set to determine if it is an inferior
    (subwindow) of a window created by the client.
    (The save-set is a list of other clients' windows
    that are referred to as save-set windows.)
    If so, the X server reparents the save-set window to the closest ancestor so
    that the save-set window is not an inferior of a window created by the client.
    The reparenting leaves unchanged the absolute coordinates (with respect to
    the root window) of the upper-left outer corner of the save-set
    window.

  • It performs a
    MapWindow
    request on the save-set window if the save-set window is unmapped.
    The X server does this even if the save-set window was not an inferior of
    a window created by the client.

  • It destroys all windows created by the client.

  • It performs the appropriate free request on each nonwindow resource created by
    the client in the server (for example,
    Font,
    Pixmap,
    Cursor,
    Colormap,
    and
    GContext).

  • It frees all colors and colormap entries allocated by a client application.

Additional processing occurs when the last connection to the X server closes.
An X server goes through a cycle of having no connections and having some
connections.
When the last connection to the X server closes as a result of a connection
closing with the close_mode of
DestroyAll,
the X server does the following:

  • It resets its state as if it had just been
    started.
    The X server begins by destroying all lingering resources from
    clients that have terminated in
    RetainPermanent
    or
    RetainTemporary
    mode.

  • It deletes all but the predefined atom identifiers.

  • It deletes all properties on all root windows
    (see section 4.3).

  • It resets all device maps and attributes
    (for example, key click, bell volume, and acceleration)
    as well as the access control list.

  • It restores the standard root tiles and cursors.

  • It restores the default font path.

  • It restores the input focus to state
    PointerRoot.

However, the X server does not reset if you close a connection with a close-down
mode set to
RetainPermanent
or
RetainTemporary.

Using Xlib with Threads

On systems that have threads, support may be provided to permit
multiple threads to use Xlib concurrently.

To initialize support for concurrent threads, use
XInitThreads.

Status XInitThreads(void);

The
XInitThreads
function initializes Xlib support for concurrent threads.
This function must be the first Xlib function a
multi-threaded program calls, and it must complete
before any other Xlib call is made.
This function returns a nonzero status if initialization was
successful; otherwise, it returns zero.
On systems that do not support threads, this function always returns zero.

It is only necessary to call this function if multiple threads
might use Xlib concurrently. If all calls to Xlib functions
are protected by some other access mechanism (for example,
a mutual exclusion lock in a toolkit or through explicit client
programming), Xlib thread initialization is not required.
It is recommended that single-threaded programs not call this function.

To lock a display across several Xlib calls, use
XLockDisplay.

XLockDisplay(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.

The
XLockDisplay
function locks out all other threads from using the specified display.
Other threads attempting to use the display will block until
the display is unlocked by this thread.
Nested calls to
XLockDisplay
work correctly; the display will not actually be unlocked until
XUnlockDisplay
has been called the same number of times as
XLockDisplay.
This function has no effect unless Xlib was successfully initialized
for threads using
XInitThreads.

To unlock a display, use
XUnlockDisplay.

XUnlockDisplay(Display *display);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.

The
XUnlockDisplay
function allows other threads to use the specified display again.
Any threads that have blocked on the display are allowed to continue.
Nested locking works correctly; if
XLockDisplay
has been called multiple times by a thread, then
XUnlockDisplay
must be called an equal number of times before the display is
actually unlocked.
This function has no effect unless Xlib was successfully initialized
for threads using
XInitThreads.

Using Internal Connections

In addition to the connection to the X server, an Xlib implementation
may require connections to other kinds of servers (for example, to
input method servers as described in
chapter 13).
Toolkits and clients
that use multiple displays, or that use displays in combination with
other inputs, need to obtain these additional connections to correctly
block until input is available and need to process that input
when it is available. Simple clients that use a single display and
block for input in an Xlib event function do not need to use these
facilities.

To track internal connections for a display, use
XAddConnectionWatch.

typedef void (*XConnectionWatchProc)(Display *display, XPointer client_data, int fd, Bool opening, XPointer *watch_data);

Status XAddConnectionWatch(Display *display, XConnectionWatchProc procedure, XPointer client_data);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


procedure

Specifies the procedure to be called.


client_data

Specifies the additional client data.

The
XAddConnectionWatch
function registers a procedure to be called each time Xlib opens or closes an
internal connection for the specified display. The procedure is passed the
display, the specified client_data, the file descriptor for the connection,
a Boolean indicating whether the connection is being opened or closed, and a
pointer to a location for private watch data. If opening is
True,
the procedure can store a pointer to private data in the location pointed
to by watch_data;
when the procedure is later called for this same connection and opening is
False,
the location pointed to by watch_data will hold this same private data pointer.

This function can be called at any time after a display is opened.
If internal connections already exist, the registered procedure will
immediately be called for each of them, before
XAddConnectionWatch
returns.
XAddConnectionWatch
returns a nonzero status if the procedure is successfully registered;
otherwise, it returns zero.

The registered procedure should not call any Xlib functions.
If the procedure directly or indirectly causes the state of internal
connections or watch procedures to change, the result is not defined.
If Xlib has been initialized for threads, the procedure is called with
the display locked and the result of a call by the procedure to any
Xlib function that locks the display is not defined unless the executing
thread has externally locked the display using
XLockDisplay.

To stop tracking internal connections for a display, use
XRemoveConnectionWatch.

Status XRemoveConnectionWatch(Display *display, XConnectionWatchProc procedure, XPointer client_data);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


procedure

Specifies the procedure to be called.


client_data

Specifies the additional client data.

The
XRemoveConnectionWatch
function removes a previously registered connection watch procedure.
The client_data must match the client_data used when the procedure
was initially registered.

To process input on an internal connection, use
XProcessInternalConnection.

void XProcessInternalConnection(Display *display, int fd);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


fd

Specifies the file descriptor.

The
XProcessInternalConnection
function processes input available on an internal connection.
This function should be called for an internal connection only
after an operating system facility (for example,
select
or
poll)
has indicated that input is available; otherwise,
the effect is not defined.

To obtain all of the current internal connections for a display, use
XInternalConnectionNumbers.

Status XInternalConnectionNumbers(Display *display, int ** fd, int * count_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


fd_return

Returns the file descriptors.


count_return

Returns the number of file descriptors.

The
XInternalConnectionNumbers
function returns a list of the file descriptors for all internal
connections currently open for the specified display.
When the allocated list is no longer needed,
free it by using
XFree.
This functions returns a nonzero status if the list is successfully allocated;
otherwise, it returns zero.

Chapter 3. Window Functions

Table of Contents

Visual TypesWindow AttributesBackground AttributeBorder AttributeGravity AttributesBacking Store AttributeSave Under FlagBacking Planes and Backing Pixel AttributesEvent Mask and Do Not Propagate Mask AttributesOverride Redirect FlagColormap AttributeCursor AttributeCreating WindowsDestroying WindowsMapping WindowsUnmapping WindowsConfiguring WindowsChanging Window Stacking OrderChanging Window Attributes

Visual Types


On some display hardware,
it may be possible to deal with color resources in more than one way.
For example, you may be able to deal with a screen of either 12-bit depth
with arbitrary mapping of pixel to color (pseudo-color) or 24-bit depth
with 8 bits of the pixel dedicated to each of red, green, and blue.
These different ways of dealing with the visual aspects of the screen
are called visuals.
For each screen of the display, there may be a list of valid visual types
supported at different depths of the screen.
Because default windows and visual types are defined for each screen,
most simple applications need not deal with this complexity.
Xlib provides macros and functions that return the default root window,
the default depth of the default root window, and the default visual type
(see sections 2.2.1
and 16.7).

Xlib uses an opaque
Visual

structure that contains information about the possible color mapping.
The visual utility functions
(see section 16.7)
use an
XVisualInfo
structure to return this information to an application.
The members of this structure pertinent to this discussion are class, red_mask,
green_mask, blue_mask, bits_per_rgb, and colormap_size.
The class member specifies one of the possible visual classes of the screen
and can be






StaticGray,
StaticColor,
TrueColor,
GrayScale,
PseudoColor,
or
DirectColor.

The following concepts may serve to make the explanation of
visual types clearer.
The screen can be color or grayscale,
can have a colormap that is writable or read-only,
and can also have a colormap whose indices are decomposed into separate
RGB pieces, provided one is not on a grayscale screen.
This leads to the following diagram:

                      Color        Gray-Scale
                   R/O    R/W      R/O   R/W
----------------------------------------------
 Undecomposed    Static  Pseudo   Static  Gray
   Colormap      Color   Color    Gray    Scale

 Decomposed       True   Direct
   Colormap       Color  Color
----------------------------------------------

Conceptually,
as each pixel is read out of video memory for display on the screen,
it goes through a look-up stage by indexing into a colormap.
Colormaps can be manipulated arbitrarily on some hardware,
in limited ways on other hardware, and not at all on other hardware.
The visual types affect the colormap and
the RGB values in the following ways:

  • For
    PseudoColor,
    a pixel value indexes a colormap to produce
    independent RGB values, and the RGB values can be changed dynamically.

  • GrayScale
    is treated the same way as
    PseudoColor
    except that the primary that drives the screen is undefined.
    Thus, the client should always store the
    same value for red, green, and blue in the colormaps.

  • For
    DirectColor,
    a pixel value is decomposed into separate RGB subfields, and each
    subfield separately indexes the colormap for the corresponding value.
    The RGB values can be changed dynamically.

  • TrueColor
    is treated the same way as
    DirectColor
    except that the colormap has predefined, read-only RGB values.
    These RGB values are server dependent but provide linear or near-linear
    ramps in each primary.

  • StaticColor
    is treated the same way as
    PseudoColor
    except that the colormap has predefined,
    read-only, server-dependent RGB values.

  • StaticGray
    is treated the same way as
    StaticColor
    except that the RGB values are equal for any single pixel
    value, thus resulting in shades of gray.
    StaticGray
    with a two-entry
    colormap can be thought of as monochrome.

The red_mask, green_mask, and blue_mask members are only defined for
DirectColor
and
TrueColor.
Each has one contiguous set of bits with no
intersections.
The bits_per_rgb member specifies the log base 2 of the
number of distinct color values (individually) of red, green, and blue.
Actual RGB values are unsigned 16-bit numbers.
The colormap_size member defines the number of available colormap entries
in a newly created colormap.
For
DirectColor
and
TrueColor,
this is the size of an individual pixel subfield.

To obtain the visual ID from a
Visual,
use
XVisualIDFromVisual.

VisualID XVisualIDFromVisual(Visual *visual);


visual

Specifies the visual type.

The
XVisualIDFromVisual
function returns the visual ID for the specified visual type.

Window Attributes



All
InputOutput
windows have a border width of zero or more pixels, an optional background,
an event suppression mask (which suppresses propagation of events from
children), and a property list
(see section 4.3).
The window border and background can be a solid color or a pattern, called
a tile.
All windows except the root have a parent and are clipped by their parent.
If a window is stacked on top of another window, it obscures that other
window for the purpose of input.
If a window has a background (almost all do), it obscures the other
window for purposes of output.
Attempts to output to the obscured area do nothing,
and no input events (for example, pointer motion) are generated for the
obscured area.

Windows also have associated property lists
(see section 4.3).

Both
InputOutput
and
InputOnly
windows have the following common attributes,
which are the only attributes of an
InputOnly
window:

  • win-gravity

  • event-mask

  • do-not-propagate-mask

  • override-redirect

  • cursor

If you specify any other attributes for an
InputOnly
window,
a
BadMatch
error results.

InputOnly
windows are used for controlling input events in situations where
InputOutput
windows are unnecessary.
InputOnly
windows are invisible; can only be used to control such things as
cursors, input event generation, and grabbing;
and cannot be used in any graphics requests.
Note that
InputOnly
windows cannot have
InputOutput
windows as inferiors.

Windows have borders of a programmable width and pattern
as well as a background pattern or tile.

Pixel values can be used for solid colors.


The background and border pixmaps can be destroyed immediately after
creating the window if no further explicit references to them
are to be made.

The pattern can either be relative to the parent
or absolute.
If
ParentRelative,
the parent's background is used.

When windows are first created,
they are not visible (not mapped) on the screen.
Any output to a window that is not visible on the screen
and that does not have backing store will be discarded.

An application may wish to create a window long before it is
mapped to the screen.
When a window is eventually mapped to the screen
(using
XMapWindow),

the X server generates an
Expose
event for the window if backing store has not been maintained.

A window manager can override your choice of size,
border width, and position for a top-level window.
Your program must be prepared to use the actual size and position
of the top window.
It is not acceptable for a client application to resize itself
unless in direct response to a human command to do so.
Instead, either your program should use the space given to it,
or if the space is too small for any useful work, your program
might ask the user to resize the window.
The border of your top-level window is considered fair game
for window managers.

To set an attribute of a window,
set the appropriate member of the
XSetWindowAttributes
structure and OR in the corresponding value bitmask in your subsequent calls to
XCreateWindow
and
XChangeWindowAttributes,
or use one of the other convenience functions that set the appropriate
attribute.
The symbols for the value mask bits and the
XSetWindowAttributes
structure are:

/* Window attribute value mask bits */

/* Window attribute value mask bits */
#define    CWBackPixmap                    (1L<<0)
#define    CWBackPixel                     (1L<<1)
#define    CWBorderPixmap                  (1L<<2)
#define    CWBorderPixel                   (1L<<3)
#define    CWBitGravity                    (1L<<4)
#define    CWWinGravity                    (1L<<5)
#define    CWBackingStore                  (1L<<6)
#define    CWBackingPlanes                 (1L<<7)
#define    CWBackingPixel                  (1L<<8)
#define    CWOverrideRedirect              (1L<<9)
#define    CWSaveUnder                     (1L<<10)
#define    CWEventMask                     (1L<<11)
#define    CWDontPropagate                 (1L<<12)
#define    CWColormap                      (1L<<13)
#define    CWCursor                        (1L<<14)


/* Values */

typedef struct {
     Pixmap background_pixmap;     /* background, None, or ParentRelative */
     unsigned long background_pixel;     /* background pixel */
     Pixmap border_pixmap;          /* border of the window or CopyFromParent */
     unsigned long border_pixel;     /* border pixel value */
     int bit_gravity;     /* one of bit gravity values */
     int win_gravity;     /* one of the window gravity values */
     int backing_store;     /* NotUseful, WhenMapped, Always */
     unsigned long backing_planes;     /* planes to be preserved if possible */
     unsigned long backing_pixel;     /* value to use in restoring planes */
     Bool save_under;     /* should bits under be saved? (popups) */
     long event_mask;     /* set of events that should be saved */
     long do_not_propagate_mask;     /* set of events that should not propagate */
     Bool override_redirect;     /* boolean value for override_redirect */
     Colormap colormap;     /* color map to be associated with window */
     Cursor cursor;          /* cursor to be displayed (or None) */
} XSetWindowAttributes;

The following lists the defaults for each window attribute and indicates
whether the attribute is applicable to
InputOutput
and
InputOnly
windows:

Attribute Default InputOutput InputOnly
background-pixmap None Yes No
background-pixel Undefined Yes No
border-pixmap CopyFromParent Yes No
border-pixel Undefined Yes No
bit-gravity ForgetGravity Yes No
win-gravity NorthWestGravity Yes Yes
backing-store NotUseful Yes No
backing-planes All ones Yes No
backing-pixel zero Yes No
save-under False Yes No
event-mask empty set Yes Yes
do-not-propagate-mask empty set Yes Yes
override-redirect False Yes Yes
colormap CopyFromParent Yes No
cursor None Yes Yes

Background Attribute

Only
InputOutput
windows can have a background.
You can set the background of an
InputOutput
window by using a pixel or a pixmap.

The background-pixmap attribute of a window specifies the pixmap to be used for
a window's background.
This pixmap can be of any size, although some sizes may be faster than others.
The background-pixel attribute of a window specifies a pixel value used to paint
a window's background in a single color.

You can set the background-pixmap to a pixmap,
None
(default), or
ParentRelative.
You can set the background-pixel of a window to any pixel value (no default).
If you specify a background-pixel,
it overrides either the default background-pixmap
or any value you may have set in the background-pixmap.
A pixmap of an undefined size that is filled with the background-pixel is used
for the background.
Range checking is not performed on the background pixel;
it simply is truncated to the appropriate number of bits.

If you set the background-pixmap,
it overrides the default.
The background-pixmap and the window must have the same depth,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If you set background-pixmap to
None,
the window has no defined background.
If you set the background-pixmap to
ParentRelative:

  • The parent window's background-pixmap is used.
    The child window, however, must have the same depth as
    its parent,
    or a
    BadMatch
    error results.

  • If the parent window has a background-pixmap of
    None,
    the window also has a background-pixmap of
    None.

  • A copy of the parent window's background-pixmap is not made.
    The parent's background-pixmap is examined each time the child window's
    background-pixmap is required.

  • The background tile origin always aligns with the parent window's
    background tile origin.
    If the background-pixmap is not
    ParentRelative,
    the background tile origin is the child window's origin.

Setting a new background, whether by setting background-pixmap or
background-pixel, overrides any previous background.
The background-pixmap can be freed immediately if no further explicit reference
is made to it (the X server will keep a copy to use when needed).
If you later draw into the pixmap used for the background,
what happens is undefined because the
X implementation is free to make a copy of the pixmap or
to use the same pixmap.

When no valid contents are available for regions of a window
and either the regions are visible or the server is maintaining backing store,
the server automatically tiles the regions with the window's background
unless the window has a background of
None.
If the background is
None,
the previous screen contents from other windows of the same depth as the window
are simply left in place as long as the contents come from the parent of the
window or an inferior of the parent.
Otherwise, the initial contents of the exposed regions are undefined.
Expose
events are then generated for the regions, even if the background-pixmap
is
None
(see section 10.9).

Border Attribute

Only
InputOutput
windows can have a border.
You can set the border of an
InputOutput
window by using a pixel or a pixmap.

The border-pixmap attribute of a window specifies the pixmap to be used
for a window's border.
The border-pixel attribute of a window specifies a pixmap of undefined size
filled with that pixel be used for a window's border.
Range checking is not performed on the background pixel;
it simply is truncated to the appropriate number of bits.
The border tile origin is always the same as the background tile origin.

You can also set the border-pixmap to a pixmap of any size (some may be faster
than others) or to
CopyFromParent
(default).
You can set the border-pixel to any pixel value (no default).

If you set a border-pixmap,
it overrides the default.
The border-pixmap and the window must have the same depth,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If you set the border-pixmap to
CopyFromParent,
the parent window's border-pixmap is copied.
Subsequent changes to the parent window's border attribute do not affect
the child window.
However, the child window must have the same depth as the parent window,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

The border-pixmap can be freed immediately if no further explicit reference
is made to it.
If you later draw into the pixmap used for the border,
what happens is undefined because the
X implementation is free either to make a copy of the pixmap or
to use the same pixmap.
If you specify a border-pixel,
it overrides either the default border-pixmap
or any value you may have set in the border-pixmap.
All pixels in the window's border will be set to the border-pixel.
Setting a new border, whether by setting border-pixel or by setting
border-pixmap, overrides any previous border.

Output to a window is always clipped to the inside of the window.
Therefore, graphics operations never affect the window border.

Gravity Attributes

The bit gravity of a window defines which region of the window should be
retained when an
InputOutput
window is resized.
The default value for the bit-gravity attribute is
ForgetGravity.
The window gravity of a window allows you to define how the
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window should be repositioned if its parent is resized.
The default value for the win-gravity attribute is
NorthWestGravity.

If the inside width or height of a window is not changed
and if the window is moved or its border is changed,
then the contents of the window are not lost but move with the window.
Changing the inside width or height of the window causes its contents to be
moved or lost (depending on the bit-gravity of the window) and causes
children to be reconfigured (depending on their win-gravity).
For a
change of width and height, the (x, y) pairs are defined:

Gravity Direction Coordinates
NorthWestGravity (0, 0)
NorthGravity (Width/2, 0)
NorthEastGravity (Width, 0)
WestGravity (0, Height/2)
CenterGravity (Width/2, Height/2)
EastGravity (Width, Height/2)
SouthWestGravity (0, Height)
SouthGravity (Width/2, Height)
SouthEastGravity (Width, Height)

When a window with one of these bit-gravity values is resized,
the corresponding pair
defines the change in position of each pixel in the window.
When a window with one of these win-gravities has its parent window resized,
the corresponding pair defines the change in position of the window
within the parent.
When a window is so repositioned, a
GravityNotify
event is generated
(see section 10.10.5).

A bit-gravity of
StaticGravity
indicates that the contents or origin should not move relative to the
origin of the root window.
If the change in size of the window is coupled with a change in position (x, y),
then for bit-gravity the change in position of each pixel is (−x, −y), and for
win-gravity the change in position of a child when its parent is so resized is
(−x, −y).
Note that
StaticGravity
still only takes effect when the width or height of the window is changed,
not when the window is moved.

A bit-gravity of
ForgetGravity
indicates that the window's contents are always discarded after a size change,
even if a backing store or save under has been requested.
The window is tiled with its background
and zero or more
Expose
events are generated.
If no background is defined, the existing screen contents are not
altered.
Some X servers may also ignore the specified bit-gravity and
always generate
Expose
events.

The contents and borders of inferiors are not affected by their parent's
bit-gravity.
A server is permitted to ignore the specified bit-gravity and use
Forget
instead.

A win-gravity of
UnmapGravity
is like
NorthWestGravity
(the window is not moved),
except the child is also
unmapped when the parent is resized,
and an
UnmapNotify
event is
generated.

Backing Store Attribute

Some implementations of the X server may choose to maintain the contents of
InputOutput
windows.
If the X server maintains the contents of a window,
the off-screen saved pixels
are known as backing store.
The backing store advises the X server on what to do
with the contents of a window.
The backing-store attribute can be set to
NotUseful
(default),
WhenMapped,
or
Always.

A backing-store attribute of
NotUseful
advises the X server that
maintaining contents is unnecessary,
although some X implementations may
still choose to maintain contents and, therefore, not generate
Expose
events.
A backing-store attribute of
WhenMapped
advises the X server that maintaining contents of
obscured regions when the window is mapped would be beneficial.
In this case,
the server may generate an
Expose
event when the window is created.
A backing-store attribute of
Always
advises the X server that maintaining contents even when
the window is unmapped would be beneficial.
Even if the window is larger than its parent,
this is a request to the X server to maintain complete contents,
not just the region within the parent window boundaries.
While the X server maintains the window's contents,
Expose
events normally are not generated,
but the X server may stop maintaining
contents at any time.

When the contents of obscured regions of a window are being maintained,
regions obscured by noninferior windows are included in the destination
of graphics requests (and source, when the window is the source).
However, regions obscured by inferior windows are not included.

Save Under Flag

Some server implementations may preserve contents of
InputOutput
windows under other
InputOutput
windows.
This is not the same as preserving the contents of a window for you.
You may get better visual
appeal if transient windows (for example, pop-up menus) request that the system
preserve the screen contents under them,
so the temporarily obscured applications do not have to repaint.

You can set the save-under flag to
True
or
False
(default).
If save-under is
True,
the X server is advised that, when this window is mapped,
saving the contents of windows it obscures would be beneficial.

Backing Planes and Backing Pixel Attributes

You can set backing planes to indicate (with bits set to 1)
which bit planes of an
InputOutput
window hold dynamic data that must be preserved in backing store
and during save unders.
The default value for the backing-planes attribute is all bits set to 1.
You can set backing pixel to specify what bits to use in planes not
covered by backing planes.
The default value for the backing-pixel attribute is all bits set to 0.
The X server is free to save only the specified bit planes in the backing store
or the save under and is free to regenerate the remaining planes with
the specified pixel value.
Any extraneous bits in these values (that is, those bits beyond
the specified depth of the window) may be simply ignored.
If you request backing store or save unders,
you should use these members to minimize the amount of off-screen memory
required to store your window.

Event Mask and Do Not Propagate Mask Attributes

The event mask defines which events the client is interested in for this
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window (or, for some event types, inferiors of this window).
The event mask is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more of the
valid event mask bits.
You can specify that no maskable events are reported by setting
NoEventMask
(default).

The do-not-propagate-mask attribute
defines which events should not be propagated to
ancestor windows when no client has the event type selected in this
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window.
The do-not-propagate-mask is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more
of the following masks:
KeyPress,
KeyRelease,
ButtonPress,
ButtonRelease,
PointerMotion,
Button1Motion,
Button2Motion,
Button3Motion,
Button4Motion,
Button5Motion,
and
ButtonMotion.
You can specify that all events are propagated by setting
NoEventMask
(default).

Override Redirect Flag

To control window placement or to add decoration,
a window manager often needs to intercept (redirect) any map or configure
request.
Pop-up windows, however, often need to be mapped without a window manager
getting in the way.
To control whether an
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window is to ignore these structure control facilities,
use the override-redirect flag.

The override-redirect flag specifies whether map and configure requests
on this window should override a
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent.
You can set the override-redirect flag to
True
or
False
(default).
Window managers use this information to avoid tampering with pop-up windows
(see also chapter 14).

Colormap Attribute

The colormap attribute specifies which colormap best reflects the true
colors of the
InputOutput
window.
The colormap must have the same visual type as the window,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
X servers capable of supporting multiple
hardware colormaps can use this information,
and window managers can use it for calls to
XInstallColormap.
You can set the colormap attribute to a colormap or to
CopyFromParent
(default).

If you set the colormap to
CopyFromParent,
the parent window's colormap is copied and used by its child.
However, the child window must have the same visual type as the parent,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The parent window must not have a colormap of
None,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The colormap is copied by sharing the colormap object between the child
and parent, not by making a complete copy of the colormap contents.
Subsequent changes to the parent window's colormap attribute do
not affect the child window.

Cursor Attribute

The cursor attribute specifies which cursor is to be used when the pointer is
in the
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window.
You can set the cursor to a cursor or
None
(default).

If you set the cursor to
None,
the parent's cursor is used when the
pointer is in the
InputOutput
or
InputOnly
window, and any change in the parent's cursor will cause an
immediate change in the displayed cursor.
By calling
XFreeCursor,
the cursor can be freed immediately as long as no further explicit reference
to it is made.

Creating Windows

Xlib provides basic ways for creating windows,
and toolkits often supply higher-level functions specifically for
creating and placing top-level windows,
which are discussed in the appropriate toolkit documentation.
If you do not use a toolkit, however,
you must provide some standard information or hints for the window
manager by using the Xlib inter-client communication functions
(see chapter 14).

If you use Xlib to create your own top-level windows
(direct children of the root window),
you must observe the following rules so that all applications interact
reasonably across the different styles of window management:

  • You must never fight with the window manager for the size or
    placement of your top-level window.

  • You must be able to deal with whatever size window you get,
    even if this means that your application just prints a message
    like “Please make me bigger” in its window.

  • You should only attempt to resize or move top-level windows in
    direct response to a user request.
    If a request to change the size of a top-level window fails,
    you must be prepared to live with what you get.
    You are free to resize or move the children of top-level
    windows as necessary.
    (Toolkits often have facilities for automatic relayout.)

  • If you do not use a toolkit that automatically sets standard window properties,
    you should set these properties for top-level windows before mapping them.

For further information,
see chapter 14 and
the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual.

XCreateWindow
is the more general function that allows you to set specific window attributes
when you create a window.
XCreateSimpleWindow
creates a window that inherits its attributes from its parent window.


The X server acts as if
InputOnly
windows do not exist for
the purposes of graphics requests, exposure processing, and
VisibilityNotify
events.
An
InputOnly
window cannot be used as a
drawable (that is, as a source or destination for graphics requests).
InputOnly
and
InputOutput
windows act identically in other respects (properties,
grabs, input control, and so on).
Extension packages can define other classes of windows.

To create an unmapped window and set its window attributes, use
XCreateWindow.

Window XCreateWindow(Display *display, Window parent, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int border_width, int depth, unsigned int class, Visual *visual, unsigned long valuemask, XSetWindowAttributes *attributes);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


parent

Specifies the parent window.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are the top-left outside corner of
the created window's borders and are relative to the inside of the parent
window's borders.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the created window's inside
dimensions and do not include the created window's borders.
The dimensions must be nonzero,
or a
BadValue
error results.


border_width

Specifies the width of the created window's border in pixels.


depth

Specifies the window's depth.
A depth of
CopyFromParent
means the depth is taken from the parent.


class

Specifies the created window's class.
You can pass
InputOutput,
InputOnly,
or
CopyFromParent.
A class of
CopyFromParent
means the class
is taken from the parent.


visual

Specifies the visual type.
A visual of
CopyFromParent
means the visual type is taken from the
parent.


valuemask

Specifies which window attributes are defined in the attributes
argument.
This mask is the bitwise inclusive OR of the valid attribute mask bits.
If valuemask is zero,
the attributes are ignored and are not referenced.


attributes

Specifies the structure from which the values (as specified by the value mask)
are to be taken.
The value mask should have the appropriate bits
set to indicate which attributes have been set in the structure.

The
XCreateWindow
function creates an unmapped subwindow for a specified parent window,
returns the window ID of the created window,
and causes the X server to generate a
CreateNotify
event.
The created window is placed on top in the stacking order
with respect to siblings.

The coordinate system has the X axis horizontal and the Y axis vertical
with the origin [0, 0] at the upper-left corner.
Coordinates are integral,
in terms of pixels,
and coincide with pixel centers.
Each window and pixmap has its own coordinate system.
For a window,
the origin is inside the border at the inside, upper-left corner.

The border_width for an
InputOnly
window must be zero, or a
BadMatch
error results.
For class
InputOutput,
the visual type and depth must be a combination supported for the screen,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The depth need not be the same as the parent,
but the parent must not be a window of class
InputOnly,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
For an
InputOnly
window,
the depth must be zero, and the visual must be one supported by the screen.
If either condition is not met,
a
BadMatch
error results.
The parent window, however, may have any depth and class.
If you specify any invalid window attribute for a window, a
BadMatch
error results.

The created window is not yet displayed (mapped) on the user's display.
To display the window, call
XMapWindow.
The new window initially uses the same cursor as
its parent.
A new cursor can be defined for the new window by calling
XDefineCursor.


The window will not be visible on the screen unless it and all of its
ancestors are mapped and it is not obscured by any of its ancestors.

XCreateWindow
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadColor,
BadCursor,
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To create an unmapped
InputOutput
subwindow of a given parent window, use
XCreateSimpleWindow.

Window XCreateSimpleWindow(Display *display, Window parent, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int border_width, unsigned long border, unsigned long background);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


parent

Specifies the parent window.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are the top-left outside corner of
the new window's borders and are relative to the inside of the parent
window's borders.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the created window's inside
dimensions and do not include the created window's borders.
The dimensions must be nonzero,
or a
BadValue
error results.


border_width

Specifies the width of the created window's border in pixels.


border

Specifies the border pixel value of the window.


background

Specifies the background pixel value of the window.

The
XCreateSimpleWindow
function creates an unmapped
InputOutput
subwindow for a specified parent window, returns the
window ID of the created window, and causes the X server to generate a
CreateNotify
event.
The created window is placed on top in the stacking order with respect to
siblings.
Any part of the window that extends outside its parent window is clipped.
The border_width for an
InputOnly
window must be zero, or a
BadMatch
error results.
XCreateSimpleWindow
inherits its depth, class, and visual from its parent.
All other window attributes, except background and border,
have their default values.

XCreateSimpleWindow
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

Destroying Windows

Xlib provides functions that you can use to destroy a window or destroy all
subwindows of a window.

To destroy a window and all of its subwindows, use
XDestroyWindow.

XDestroyWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XDestroyWindow
function destroys the specified window as well as all of its subwindows and causes
the X server to generate a
DestroyNotify
event for each window.
The window should never be referenced again.
If the window specified by the w argument is mapped,
it is unmapped automatically.
The ordering of the
DestroyNotify
events is such that for any given window being destroyed,
DestroyNotify
is generated on any inferiors of the window before being generated on
the window itself.
The ordering among siblings and across subhierarchies is not otherwise
constrained.
If the window you specified is a root window, no windows are destroyed.
Destroying a mapped window will generate
Expose
events on other windows that were obscured by the window being destroyed.

XDestroyWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To destroy all subwindows of a specified window, use
XDestroySubwindows.

XDestroySubwindows(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XDestroySubwindows
function destroys all inferior windows of the specified window,
in bottom-to-top stacking order.
It causes the X server to generate a
DestroyNotify
event for each window.
If any mapped
subwindows were actually destroyed,
XDestroySubwindows
causes the X server to generate
Expose
events on the specified window.
This is much more efficient than deleting many windows
one at a time because much of the work need be performed only once for all
of the windows, rather than for each window.
The subwindows should never be referenced again.

XDestroySubwindows
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Mapping Windows

A window is considered mapped if an
XMapWindow
call has been made on it.
It may not be visible on the screen for one of the following reasons:

  • It is obscured by another opaque window.

  • One of its ancestors is not mapped.

  • It is entirely clipped by an ancestor.

Expose
events are generated for the window when part or all of
it becomes visible on the screen.
A client receives the
Expose
events only if it has asked for them.
Windows retain their position in the stacking order when they are unmapped.

A window manager may want to control the placement of subwindows.
If
SubstructureRedirectMask
has been selected by a window manager
on a parent window (usually a root window),
a map request initiated by other clients on a child window is not performed,
and the window manager is sent a
MapRequest
event.
However, if the override-redirect flag on the child had been set to
True
(usually only on pop-up menus),
the map request is performed.

A tiling window manager might decide to reposition and resize other clients'
windows and then decide to map the window to its final location.
A window manager that wants to provide decoration might
reparent the child into a frame first.
For further information,
see sections 3.2.8
and 10.10.
Only a single client at a time can select for
SubstructureRedirectMask.

Similarly, a single client can select for
ResizeRedirectMask
on a parent window.
Then, any attempt to resize the window by another client is suppressed, and
the client receives a
ResizeRequest
event.

To map a given window, use
XMapWindow.

XMapWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XMapWindow
function
maps the window and all of its
subwindows that have had map requests.
Mapping a window that has an unmapped ancestor does not display the
window but marks it as eligible for display when the ancestor becomes
mapped.
Such a window is called unviewable.
When all its ancestors are mapped,
the window becomes viewable
and will be visible on the screen if it is not obscured by another window.
This function has no effect if the window is already mapped.

If the override-redirect of the window is
False
and if some other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent window, then the X server generates a
MapRequest
event, and the
XMapWindow
function does not map the window.
Otherwise, the window is mapped, and the X server generates a
MapNotify
event.

If the window becomes viewable and no earlier contents for it are remembered,
the X server tiles the window with its background.
If the window's background is undefined,
the existing screen contents are not
altered, and the X server generates zero or more
Expose
events.
If backing-store was maintained while the window was unmapped, no
Expose
events
are generated.
If backing-store will now be maintained,
a full-window exposure is always generated.
Otherwise, only visible regions may be reported.
Similar tiling and exposure take place for any newly viewable inferiors.


If the window is an
InputOutput
window,
XMapWindow
generates
Expose
events on each
InputOutput
window that it causes to be displayed.
If the client maps and paints the window
and if the client begins processing events,
the window is painted twice.
To avoid this,
first ask for
Expose
events and then map the window,
so the client processes input events as usual.
The event list will include
Expose
for each
window that has appeared on the screen.
The client's normal response to
an
Expose
event should be to repaint the window.
This method usually leads to simpler programs and to proper interaction
with window managers.

XMapWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To map and raise a window, use
XMapRaised.

XMapRaised(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XMapRaised
function
essentially is similar to
XMapWindow
in that it maps the window and all of its
subwindows that have had map requests.
However, it also raises the specified window to the top of the stack.
For additional information,
see
XMapWindow.

XMapRaised
can generate multiple
BadWindow
errors.

To map all subwindows for a specified window, use
XMapSubwindows.

XMapSubwindows(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XMapSubwindows

function maps all subwindows for a specified window in top-to-bottom stacking
order.
The X server generates
Expose
events on each newly displayed window.
This may be much more efficient than mapping many windows
one at a time because the server needs to perform much of the work
only once, for all of the windows, rather than for each window.

XMapSubwindows
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Unmapping Windows

Xlib provides functions that you can use to unmap a window or all subwindows.

To unmap a window, use
XUnmapWindow.

XUnmapWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XUnmapWindow
function unmaps the specified window and causes the X server to generate an
UnmapNotify


event.
If the specified window is already unmapped,
XUnmapWindow
has no effect.
Normal exposure processing on formerly obscured windows is performed.
Any child window will no longer be visible until another map call is
made on the parent.
In other words, the subwindows are still mapped but are not visible
until the parent is mapped.
Unmapping a window will generate
Expose
events on windows that were formerly obscured by it.

XUnmapWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To unmap all subwindows for a specified window, use
XUnmapSubwindows.

XUnmapSubwindows(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XUnmapSubwindows
function unmaps all subwindows for the specified window in bottom-to-top
stacking order.
It causes the X server to generate an
UnmapNotify
event on each subwindow and
Expose
events on formerly obscured windows.

Using this function is much more efficient than unmapping multiple windows
one at a time because the server needs to perform much of the work
only once, for all of the windows, rather than for each window.

XUnmapSubwindows
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Configuring Windows

Xlib provides functions that you can use to
move a window, resize a window, move and resize a window, or
change a window's border width.
To change one of these parameters,
set the appropriate member of the
XWindowChanges
structure and OR in the corresponding value mask in subsequent calls to
XConfigureWindow.
The symbols for the value mask bits and the
XWindowChanges
structure are:

/* Configure window value mask bits */
#define      CWX              (1<<0)
#define      CWY              (1<<1)
#define      CWWidth          (1<<2)
#define      CWHeight         (1<<3)
#define      CWBorderWidth    (1<<4)
#define      CWSibling        (1<<5)
#define      CWStackMode      (1<<6)

/* Values */

typedef struct {
     int x, y;
     int width, height;
     int border_width;
     Window sibling;
     int stack_mode;
} XWindowChanges;

The x and y members are used to set the window's x and y coordinates,
which are relative to the parent's origin
and indicate the position of the upper-left outer corner of the window.
The width and height members are used to set the inside size of the window,
not including the border, and must be nonzero, or a
BadValue
error results.
Attempts to configure a root window have no effect.

The border_width member is used to set the width of the border in pixels.
Note that setting just the border width leaves the outer-left corner of the window
in a fixed position but moves the absolute position of the window's origin.
If you attempt to set the border-width attribute of an
InputOnly
window nonzero, a
BadMatch
error results.

The sibling member is used to set the sibling window for stacking operations.
The stack_mode member is used to set how the window is to be restacked
and can be set to
Above,
Below,
TopIf,
BottomIf,
or
Opposite.

If the override-redirect flag of the window is
False
and if some other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no further processing is performed.
Otherwise,
if some other client has selected
ResizeRedirectMask
on the window and the inside
width or height of the window is being changed,
a
ResizeRequest
event is generated, and the current inside width and height are
used instead.
Note that the override-redirect flag of the window has no effect
on
ResizeRedirectMask
and that
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent has precedence over
ResizeRedirectMask
on the window.

When the geometry of the window is changed as specified,
the window is restacked among siblings, and a
ConfigureNotify
event is generated if the state of the window actually changes.
GravityNotify
events are generated after
ConfigureNotify
events.
If the inside width or height of the window has actually changed,
children of the window are affected as specified.

If a window's size actually changes,
the window's subwindows move according to their window gravity.
Depending on the window's bit gravity,
the contents of the window also may be moved
(see section 3.2.3).

If regions of the window were obscured but now are not,
exposure processing is performed on these formerly obscured windows,
including the window itself and its inferiors.
As a result of increasing the width or height,
exposure processing is also performed on any new regions of the window
and any regions where window contents are lost.

The restack check (specifically, the computation for
BottomIf,
TopIf,
and
Opposite)
is performed with respect to the window's final size and position (as
controlled by the other arguments of the request), not its initial position.
If a sibling is specified without a stack_mode,
a
BadMatch
error results.

If a sibling and a stack_mode are specified,
the window is restacked as follows:

Above The window is placed just above the sibling.
Below The window is placed just below the sibling.
TopIf If the sibling occludes the window, the window is placed at the top of the stack.
BottomIf If the window occludes the sibling, the window is placed at the bottom of the stack.
Opposite If the sibling occludes the window, the window is placed at the top of the stack.
If the window occludes the sibling,
the window is placed at the bottom of the stack.

If a stack_mode is specified but no sibling is specified,
the window is restacked as follows:

Above The window is placed at the top of the stack.
Below The window is placed at the bottom of the stack.
TopIf If any sibling occludes the window, the window is placed at
the top of the stack.
BottomIf If the window occludes any sibling, the window is placed at
the bottom of the stack.
Opposite If any sibling occludes the window, the window
is placed at the top of the stack.
If the window occludes any sibling,
the window is placed at the bottom of the stack.

Attempts to configure a root window have no effect.

To configure a window's size, location, stacking, or border, use
XConfigureWindow.

XConfigureWindow(Display *display, Window w, unsigned int value_mask, XWindowChanges *values);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window to be reconfigured.


value_mask

Specifies which values are to be set using information in
the values structure.
This mask is the bitwise inclusive OR of the valid configure window values bits.


values

Specifies the
XWindowChanges
structure.

The
XConfigureWindow
function uses the values specified in the
XWindowChanges
structure to reconfigure a window's size, position, border, and stacking order.
Values not specified are taken from the existing geometry of the window.

If a sibling is specified without a stack_mode or if the window
is not actually a sibling,
a
BadMatch
error results.
Note that the computations for
BottomIf,
TopIf,
and
Opposite
are performed with respect to the window's final geometry (as controlled by the
other arguments passed to
XConfigureWindow),
not its initial geometry.
Any backing store contents of the window, its
inferiors, and other newly visible windows are either discarded or
changed to reflect the current screen contents
(depending on the implementation).

XConfigureWindow
can generate
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To move a window without changing its size, use
XMoveWindow.

XMoveWindow(Display *display, Window w, int x, int y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window to be moved.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which define the new location of the
top-left pixel of the window's border or the window itself if it has no
border.

The
XMoveWindow
function moves the specified window to the specified x and y coordinates,
but it does not change the window's size, raise the window, or
change the mapping state of the window.
Moving a mapped window may or may not lose the window's contents
depending on if the window is obscured by nonchildren
and if no backing store exists.
If the contents of the window are lost,
the X server generates
Expose
events.
Moving a mapped window generates
Expose
events on any formerly obscured windows.

If the override-redirect flag of the window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no further processing is
performed.
Otherwise, the window is moved.

XMoveWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To change a window's size without changing the upper-left coordinate, use
XResizeWindow.

XResizeWindow(Display *display, Window w, unsigned int width, unsigned int height);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the interior dimensions of the
window after the call completes.

The
XResizeWindow
function changes the inside dimensions of the specified window, not including
its borders.
This function does not change the window's upper-left coordinate or
the origin and does not restack the window.
Changing the size of a mapped window may lose its contents and generate
Expose
events.
If a mapped window is made smaller,
changing its size generates
Expose
events on windows that the mapped window formerly obscured.

If the override-redirect flag of the window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no further processing is performed.
If either width or height is zero,
a
BadValue
error results.

XResizeWindow
can generate
BadValue
and
BadWindow
errors.

To change the size and location of a window, use
XMoveResizeWindow.

XMoveResizeWindow(Display *display, Window w, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window to be reconfigured.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which define the new position of the
window relative to its parent.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which define the interior size of the window.

The
XMoveResizeWindow
function changes the size and location of the specified window
without raising it.
Moving and resizing a mapped window may generate an
Expose
event on the window.
Depending on the new size and location parameters,
moving and resizing a window may generate
Expose
events on windows that the window formerly obscured.

If the override-redirect flag of the window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no further processing is performed.
Otherwise, the window size and location are changed.

XMoveResizeWindow
can generate
BadValue
and
BadWindow
errors.

To change the border width of a given window, use
XSetWindowBorderWidth.

XSetWindowBorderWidth(Display *display, Window w, unsigned int width);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


width

Specifies the width of the window border.

The
XSetWindowBorderWidth
function sets the specified window's border width to the specified width.

XSetWindowBorderWidth
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Changing Window Stacking Order

Xlib provides functions that you can use to raise, lower, circulate,
or restack windows.

To raise a window so that no sibling window obscures it, use
XRaiseWindow.

XRaiseWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XRaiseWindow
function
raises the specified window to the top of the stack so that no sibling window
obscures it.
If the windows are regarded as overlapping sheets of paper stacked
on a desk,
then raising a window is analogous to moving the sheet to the top of
the stack but leaving its x and y location on the desk constant.
Raising a mapped window may generate
Expose
events for the window and any mapped subwindows that were formerly obscured.

If the override-redirect attribute of the window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no processing is performed.
Otherwise, the window is raised.

XRaiseWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To lower a window so that it does not obscure any sibling windows, use
XLowerWindow.

XLowerWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XLowerWindow
function lowers the specified window to the bottom of the stack
so that it does not obscure any sibling
windows.
If the windows are regarded as overlapping sheets of paper
stacked on a desk, then lowering a window is analogous to moving the
sheet to the bottom of the stack but leaving its x and y location on
the desk constant.
Lowering a mapped window will generate
Expose
events on any windows it formerly obscured.

If the override-redirect attribute of the window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates a
ConfigureRequest
event, and no processing is performed.
Otherwise, the window is lowered to the bottom of the
stack.

XLowerWindow
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To circulate a subwindow up or down, use
XCirculateSubwindows.

XCirculateSubwindows(Display *display, Window w, int direction);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


direction

Specifies the direction (up or down) that you want to circulate
the window.
You can pass
RaiseLowest
or
LowerHighest.

The
XCirculateSubwindows
function circulates children of the specified window in the specified
direction.
If you specify
RaiseLowest,
XCirculateSubwindows
raises the lowest mapped child (if any) that is occluded
by another child to the top of the stack.
If you specify
LowerHighest,
XCirculateSubwindows
lowers the highest mapped child (if any) that occludes another child
to the bottom of the stack.
Exposure processing is then performed on formerly obscured windows.
If some other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the window, the X server generates a
CirculateRequest
event, and no further processing is performed.
If a child is actually restacked,
the X server generates a
CirculateNotify
event.

XCirculateSubwindows
can generate
BadValue
and
BadWindow
errors.

To raise the lowest mapped child of a window that is partially or completely
occluded by another child, use
XCirculateSubwindowsUp.

XCirculateSubwindowsUp(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XCirculateSubwindowsUp
function raises the lowest mapped child of the specified window that
is partially
or completely
occluded by another child.
Completely unobscured children are not affected.
This is a convenience function equivalent to
XCirculateSubwindows
with
RaiseLowest
specified.

XCirculateSubwindowsUp
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To lower the highest mapped child of a window that partially or
completely occludes another child, use
XCirculateSubwindowsDown.

XCirculateSubwindowsDown(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XCirculateSubwindowsDown
function lowers the highest mapped child of the specified window that partially
or completely occludes another child.
Completely unobscured children are not affected.
This is a convenience function equivalent to
XCirculateSubwindows
with
LowerHighest
specified.

XCirculateSubwindowsDown
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To restack a set of windows from top to bottom, use
XRestackWindows.

XRestackWindows(Display *display, Window windows[], int nwindows);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


windows

Specifies an array containing the windows to be restacked.


nwindows

Specifies the number of windows to be restacked.

The
XRestackWindows
function restacks the windows in the order specified,
from top to bottom.
The stacking order of the first window in the windows array is unaffected,
but the other windows in the array are stacked underneath the first window,
in the order of the array.
The stacking order of the other windows is not affected.
For each window in the window array that is not a child of the specified window,
a
BadMatch
error results.

If the override-redirect attribute of a window is
False
and some
other client has selected
SubstructureRedirectMask
on the parent, the X server generates
ConfigureRequest
events for each window whose override-redirect flag is not set,
and no further processing is performed.
Otherwise, the windows will be restacked in top-to-bottom order.

XRestackWindows
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Changing Window Attributes

Xlib provides functions that you can use to set window attributes.
XChangeWindowAttributes
is the more general function that allows you to set one or more window
attributes provided by the
XSetWindowAttributes
structure.
The other functions described in this section allow you to set one specific
window attribute, such as a window's background.

To change one or more attributes for a given window, use
XChangeWindowAttributes.

XChangeWindowAttributes(Display *display, Window w, unsigned long valuemask, XSetWindowAttributes *attributes);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


valuemask

Specifies which window attributes are defined in the attributes
argument.
This mask is the bitwise inclusive OR of the valid attribute mask bits.
If valuemask is zero,
the attributes are ignored and are not referenced.
The values and restrictions are
the same as for
XCreateWindow.


attributes

Specifies the structure from which the values (as specified by the value mask)
are to be taken.
The value mask should have the appropriate bits
set to indicate which attributes have been set in the structure
(see section 3.2).

Depending on the valuemask,
the
XChangeWindowAttributes
function uses the window attributes in the
XSetWindowAttributes
structure to change the specified window attributes.
Changing the background does not cause the window contents to be
changed.
To repaint the window and its background, use
XClearWindow.
Setting the border or changing the background such that the
border tile origin changes causes the border to be repainted.
Changing the background of a root window to
None
or
ParentRelative
restores the default background pixmap.
Changing the border of a root window to
CopyFromParent
restores the default border pixmap.
Changing the win-gravity does not affect the current position of the
window.
Changing the backing-store of an obscured window to
WhenMapped
or
Always,
or changing the backing-planes, backing-pixel, or
save-under of a mapped window may have no immediate effect.
Changing the colormap of a window (that is, defining a new map, not
changing the contents of the existing map) generates a
ColormapNotify
event.
Changing the colormap of a visible window may have no
immediate effect on the screen because the map may not be installed
(see
XInstallColormap).
Changing the cursor of a root window to
None
restores the default
cursor.
Whenever possible, you are encouraged to share colormaps.

Multiple clients can select input on the same window.
Their event masks are maintained separately.
When an event is generated,
it is reported to all interested clients.
However, only one client at a time can select for
SubstructureRedirectMask,
ResizeRedirectMask,
and
ButtonPressMask.
If a client attempts to select any of these event masks
and some other client has already selected one,
a
BadAccess
error results.
There is only one do-not-propagate-mask for a window,
not one per client.

XChangeWindowAttributes
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
BadCursor,
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To set the background of a window to a given pixel, use
XSetWindowBackground.

XSetWindowBackground(Display *display, Window w, unsigned long background_pixel);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


background_pixel

Specifies the pixel that is to be used for the background.

The
XSetWindowBackground
function sets the background of the window to the specified pixel value.
Changing the background does not cause the window contents to be changed.
XSetWindowBackground
uses a pixmap of undefined size filled with the pixel value you passed.
If you try to change the background of an
InputOnly
window, a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetWindowBackground
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

To set the background of a window to a given pixmap, use
XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap.

XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap(Display *display, Window w, Pixmap background_pixmap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


background_pixmap

Specifies the background pixmap,
ParentRelative,
or
None.



The
XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap
function sets the background pixmap of the window to the specified pixmap.
The background pixmap can immediately be freed if no further explicit
references to it are to be made.
If
ParentRelative
is specified,
the background pixmap of the window's parent is used,
or on the root window, the default background is restored.
If you try to change the background of an
InputOnly
window, a
BadMatch
error results.
If the background is set to
None,
the window has no defined background.

XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap
can generate
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
and
BadWindow
errors.

XSetWindowBackground
and
XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap
do not change the current contents of the window.

To change and repaint a window's border to a given pixel, use
XSetWindowBorder.

XSetWindowBorder(Display *display, Window w, unsigned long border_pixel);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


border_pixel

Specifies the entry in the colormap.

The
XSetWindowBorder
function sets the border of the window to the pixel value you specify.
If you attempt to perform this on an
InputOnly
window, a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetWindowBorder
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

To change and repaint the border tile of a given window, use
XSetWindowBorderPixmap.

XSetWindowBorderPixmap(Display *display, Window w, Pixmap border_pixmap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


border_pixmap

Specifies the border pixmap or
CopyFromParent.

The
XSetWindowBorderPixmap
function sets the border pixmap of the window to the pixmap you specify.
The border pixmap can be freed immediately if no further explicit
references to it are to be made.
If you specify
CopyFromParent,
a copy of the parent window's border pixmap is used.
If you attempt to perform this on an
InputOnly
window, a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetWindowBorderPixmap
can generate
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To set the colormap of a given window, use
XSetWindowColormap.

XSetWindowColormap(Display *display, Window w, Colormap colormap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.

The
XSetWindowColormap
function sets the specified colormap of the specified window.
The colormap must have the same visual type as the window,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetWindowColormap
can generate
BadColor,
BadMatch,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To define which cursor will be used in a window, use
XDefineCursor.

XDefineCursor(Display *display, Window w, Cursor cursor);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


cursor

Specifies the cursor that is to be displayed or
None.

If a cursor is set, it will be used when the pointer is in the window.
If the cursor is
None,
it is equivalent to
XUndefineCursor.

XDefineCursor
can generate
BadCursor
and
BadWindow
errors.

To undefine the cursor in a given window, use
XUndefineCursor.

XUndefineCursor(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XUndefineCursor
function undoes the effect of a previous
XDefineCursor
for this window.
When the pointer is in the window,
the parent's cursor will now be used.
On the root window,
the default cursor is restored.

XUndefineCursor
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Chapter 4. Window Information Functions

Table of Contents

Obtaining Window InformationTranslating Screen CoordinatesProperties and AtomsObtaining and Changing Window PropertiesSelections

After you connect the display to the X server and create a window, you can use the Xlib window
information functions to:

  • Obtain information about a window

  • Translate screen coordinates

  • Manipulate property lists

  • Obtain and change window properties

  • Manipulate selections

Obtaining Window Information

Xlib provides functions that you can use to obtain information about
the window tree, the window's current attributes,
the window's current geometry, or the current pointer coordinates.
Because they are most frequently used by window managers,
these functions all return a status to indicate whether the window still
exists.

To obtain the parent, a list of children, and number of children for
a given window, use
XQueryTree.

Status XQueryTree(Display *display, Window w, Window *root_return, Window *parent_return, Window **children_return, unsigned int *nchildren_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose list of children, root, parent, and number of
children you want to obtain.


root_return

Returns the root window.


parent_return

Returns the parent window.


children_return

Returns the list of children.


nchildren_return

Returns the number of children.

The
XQueryTree
function returns the root ID, the parent window ID,
a pointer to the list of children windows
(NULL when there are no children),
and the number of children in the list for the specified window.
The children are listed in current stacking order, from bottom-most
(first) to top-most (last).
XQueryTree
returns zero if it fails and nonzero if it succeeds.
To free a non-NULL children list when it is no longer needed, use
XFree.

XQueryTree
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To obtain the current attributes of a given window, use
XGetWindowAttributes.

Status XGetWindowAttributes(Display *display, Window w, XWindowAttributes *window_attributes_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose current attributes you want to obtain.


window_attributes_return

Returns the specified window's attributes in the
XWindowAttributes
structure.

The
XGetWindowAttributes
function returns the current attributes for the specified window to an
XWindowAttributes
structure.


typedef struct {
     int x, y;                     /* location of window */
     int width, height;            /* width and height of window */
     int border_width;             /* border width of window */
     int depth;                    /* depth of window */
     Visual *visual;               /* the associated visual structure */
     Window root;                  /* root of screen containing window */
     int class;                    /* InputOutput, InputOnly*/
     int bit_gravity;              /* one of the bit gravity values */
     int win_gravity;              /* one of the window gravity values */
     int backing_store;            /* NotUseful, WhenMapped, Always */
     unsigned long backing_planes; /* planes to be preserved if possible */
     unsigned long backing_pixel;  /* value to be used when restoring planes */
     Bool save_under;              /* boolean, should bits under be saved? */
     Colormap colormap;            /* color map to be associated with window */
     Bool map_installed;           /* boolean, is color map currently installed*/
     int map_state;                /* IsUnmapped, IsUnviewable, IsViewable */
     long all_event_masks;         /* set of events all people have interest in*/
     long your_event_mask;         /* my event mask */
     long do_not_propagate_mask;   /* set of events that should not propagate */
     Bool override_redirect;       /* boolean value for override-redirect */
     Screen *screen;               /* back pointer to correct screen */
} XWindowAttributes;

The x and y members are set to the upper-left outer
corner relative to the parent window's origin.
The width and height members are set to the inside size of the window,
not including the border.
The border_width member is set to the window's border width in pixels.
The depth member is set to the depth of the window
(that is, bits per pixel for the object).
The visual member is a pointer to the screen's associated
Visual
structure.
The root member is set to the root window of the screen containing the window.
The class member is set to the window's class and can be either
InputOutput
or
InputOnly.

The bit_gravity member is set to the window's bit gravity
and can be one of the following:

ForgetGravity EastGravity
NorthWestGravity SouthWestGravity
NorthGravity SouthGravity
NorthEastGravity SouthEastGravity
WestGravity StaticGravity

The win_gravity member is set to the window's window gravity
and can be one of the following:

UnmapGravity SouthWestGravity
NorthWestGravity SouthGravity
NorthGravity SouthEastGravity
NorthEastGravity StaticGravity
WestGravity CenterGravity
EastGravity  

For additional information on gravity,
see section 3.2.3.

The backing_store member is set to indicate how the X server should maintain
the contents of a window
and can be
WhenMapped,
Always,
or
NotUseful.
The backing_planes member is set to indicate (with bits set to 1) which bit
planes of the window hold dynamic data that must be preserved in backing_stores
and during save_unders.
The backing_pixel member is set to indicate what values to use
for planes not set in backing_planes.

The save_under member is set to
True
or
False.
The colormap member is set to the colormap for the specified window and can be
a colormap ID or
None.
The map_installed member is set to indicate whether the colormap is
currently installed and can be
True
or
False.
The map_state member is set to indicate the state of the window and can be
IsUnmapped,
IsUnviewable,
or
IsViewable.
IsUnviewable
is used if the window is mapped but some ancestor is unmapped.

The all_event_masks member is set to the bitwise inclusive OR of all event
masks selected on the window by all clients.
The your_event_mask member is set to the bitwise inclusive OR of all event
masks selected by the querying client.
The do_not_propagate_mask member is set to the bitwise inclusive OR of the
set of events that should not propagate.

The override_redirect member is set to indicate whether this window overrides
structure control facilities and can be
True
or
False.
Window manager clients should ignore the window if this member is
True.

The screen member is set to a screen pointer that gives you a back pointer
to the correct screen.
This makes it easier to obtain the screen information without
having to loop over the root window fields to see which field matches.

XGetWindowAttributes
can generate
BadDrawable
and
BadWindow
errors.

To obtain the current geometry of a given drawable, use
XGetGeometry.

Status XGetGeometry(Display *display, Drawable d, Window *root_return, int *x_return, int *y_return, unsigned int *width_return, unsigned int *height_return, unsigned int *border_width_return, unsigned int *depth_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable, which can be a window or a pixmap.


root_return

Returns the root window.


x_return


y_return

Return the x and y coordinates that define the location of the drawable.
For a window,
these coordinates specify the upper-left outer corner relative to
its parent's origin.
For pixmaps, these coordinates are always zero.


width_return


height_return

Return the drawable's dimensions (width and height).
For a window,
these dimensions specify the inside size, not including the border.


border_width_return

Returns the border width in pixels.
If the drawable is a pixmap, it returns zero.


depth_return

Returns the depth of the drawable (bits per pixel for the object).

The
XGetGeometry
function returns the root window and the current geometry of the drawable.
The geometry of the drawable includes the x and y coordinates, width and height,
border width, and depth.
These are described in the argument list.
It is legal to pass to this function a window whose class is
InputOnly.

XGetGeometry
can generate a
BadDrawable
error.

Translating Screen Coordinates

Applications sometimes
need to perform a coordinate transformation from the coordinate
space of one window to another window or need to determine which
window the pointing device is in.
XTranslateCoordinates
and
XQueryPointer
fulfill these needs (and avoid any race conditions) by
asking the X server to perform these operations.

To translate a coordinate in one window to the coordinate
space of another window, use
XTranslateCoordinates.

Bool XTranslateCoordinates(Display *display, Window src_w, Window dest_w, int src_x, int src_y, int *dest_x_return, int *dest_y_return, Window *child_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


src_w

Specifies the source window.


dest_w

Specifies the destination window.


src_x


src_y

Specify the x and y coordinates within the source window.


dest_x_return


dest_y_return

Return the x and y coordinates within the destination window.


child_return

Returns the child if the coordinates are contained in a mapped child of the
destination window.

If
XTranslateCoordinates
returns
True,
it takes the src_x and src_y coordinates relative
to the source window's origin and returns these coordinates to
dest_x_return and dest_y_return
relative to the destination window's origin.
If
XTranslateCoordinates
returns
False,
src_w and dest_w are on different screens,
and dest_x_return and dest_y_return are zero.
If the coordinates are contained in a mapped child of dest_w,
that child is returned to child_return.
Otherwise, child_return is set to
None.

XTranslateCoordinates
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To obtain the screen coordinates of the pointer
or to determine the pointer coordinates relative to a specified window, use
XQueryPointer.

Bool XQueryPointer(Display *display, Window w, Window *root_return, Window *child_return, int *root_x_return, int *root_y_return, int *win_x_return, int *win_y_return, unsigned int *mask_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


root_return

Returns the root window that the pointer is in.


child_return

Returns the child window that the pointer is located in, if any.


root_x_return


root_y_return

Return the pointer coordinates relative to the root window's origin.


win_x_return


win_y_return

Return the pointer coordinates relative to the specified window.


mask_return

Returns the current state of the modifier keys and pointer buttons.

The
XQueryPointer
function returns the root window the pointer is logically on and the pointer
coordinates relative to the root window's origin.
If
XQueryPointer
returns
False,
the pointer is not on the same screen as the specified window, and
XQueryPointer
returns
None
to child_return and zero to win_x_return and win_y_return.
If
XQueryPointer
returns
True,
the pointer coordinates returned to win_x_return and win_y_return
are relative to the origin of the specified window.
In this case,
XQueryPointer
returns the child that contains the pointer, if any,
or else
None
to child_return.

XQueryPointer
returns the current logical state of the keyboard buttons
and the modifier keys in mask_return.
It sets mask_return to the bitwise inclusive OR of one or more
of the button or modifier key bitmasks to match
the current state of the mouse buttons and the modifier keys.

Note that the logical state of a device (as seen through Xlib)
may lag the physical state if device event processing is frozen
(see section 12.1).

XQueryPointer
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

Properties and Atoms

A property is a collection of named, typed data.
The window system has a set of predefined properties

(for example, the name of a window, size hints, and so on), and users can
define any other arbitrary information and associate it with windows.
Each property has a name,
which is an ISO Latin-1 string.
For each named property,
a unique identifier (atom) is associated with it.
A property also has a type, for example, string or integer.
These types are also indicated using atoms, so arbitrary new
types can be defined.
Data of only one type may be associated with a single
property name.
Clients can store and retrieve properties associated with windows.
For efficiency reasons,
an atom is used rather than a character string.
XInternAtom
can be used to obtain the atom for property names.

A property is also stored in one of several possible formats.
The X server can store the information as 8-bit quantities, 16-bit
quantities, or 32-bit quantities.
This permits the X server to present the data in the byte order that the
client expects.

If you define further properties of complex type,
you must encode and decode them yourself.
These functions must be carefully written if they are to be portable.
For further information about how to write a library extension,
see appendix C.

The type of a property is defined by an atom, which allows for
arbitrary extension in this type scheme.

Certain property names are
predefined in the server for commonly used functions.
The atoms for these properties are defined in
<X11/Xatom.h>.



To avoid name clashes with user symbols, the
#define
name for each atom has the XA_ prefix.
For an explanation of the functions that let you get and set
much of the information stored in these predefined properties,
see chapter 14.

The core protocol imposes no semantics on these property names,
but semantics are specified in other X Consortium standards,
such as the Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual
and the X Logical Font Description Conventions.

You can use properties to communicate other information between
applications.
The functions described in this section let you define new properties
and get the unique atom IDs in your applications.

Although any particular atom can have some client interpretation
within each of the name spaces,
atoms occur in five distinct name spaces within the protocol:

  • Selections

  • Property names

  • Property types

  • Font properties

  • Type of a
    ClientMessage
    event (none are built into the X server)

The built-in selection property names are:

PRIMARY SECONDARY

The built-in property names are:

CUT_BUFFER0 RESOURCE_MANAGER
CUT_BUFFER1 WM_CLASS
CUT_BUFFER2 WM_CLIENT_MACHINE
CUT_BUFFER3 WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS
CUT_BUFFER4 WM_COMMAND
CUT_BUFFER5 WM_HINTS
CUT_BUFFER6 WM_ICON_NAME
CUT_BUFFER7 WM_ICON_SIZE
RGB_BEST_MAP WM_NAME
RGB_BLUE_MAP WM_NORMAL_HINTS
RGB_DEFAULT_MAP WM_PROTOCOLS
RGB_GRAY_MAP WM_STATE
RGB_GREEN_MAP WM_TRANSIENT_FOR
RGB_RED_MAP WM_ZOOM_HINTS

The built-in property types are:

ARC PIXMAP
ATOM POINT
BITMAP RGB_COLOR_MAP
CARDINAL RECTANGLE
COLORMAP STRING
CURSOR VISUALID
DRAWABLE WINDOW
FONT WM_HINTS
INTEGER WM_SIZE_HINTS

The built-in font property names are:

MIN_SPACE STRIKEOUT_DESCENT
NORM_SPACE STRIKEOUT_ASCENT
MAX_SPACE ITALIC_ANGLE
END_SPACE X_HEIGHT
SUPERSCRIPT_X QUAD_WIDTH
SUPERSCRIPT_Y WEIGHT
SUBSCRIPT_X POINT_SIZE
SUBSCRIPT_Y RESOLUTION
UNDERLINE_POSITION COPYRIGHT
UNDERLINE_THICKNESS NOTICE
FONT_NAME FAMILY_NAME
FULL_NAME CAP_HEIGHT

For further information about font properties,
see section 8.5.

To return an atom for a given name, use
XInternAtom.

Atom XInternAtom(Display *display, char *atom_name, Bool only_if_exists);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


atom_name

Specifies the name associated with the atom you want returned.


only_if_exists

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates whether the atom must be created.

The
XInternAtom
function returns the atom identifier associated with the specified atom_name
string.
If only_if_exists is
False,
the atom is created if it does not exist.
Therefore,
XInternAtom
can return
None.
If the atom name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Uppercase and lowercase matter;
the strings “thing”, “Thing”, and “thinG”
all designate different atoms.
The atom will remain defined even after the client's connection closes.
It will become undefined only when the last connection to
the X server closes.

XInternAtom
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadValue
errors.

To return atoms for an array of names, use
XInternAtoms.

Status XInternAtoms(Display *display, char **names, int count, Bool only_if_exists, Atom *atoms_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


names

Specifies the array of atom names.


count

Specifies the number of atom names in the array.


only_if_exists

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates whether the atom must be created.


atoms_return

Returns the atoms.

The
XInternAtoms
function returns the atom identifiers associated with the specified names.
The atoms are stored in the atoms_return array supplied by the caller.
Calling this function is equivalent to calling
XInternAtom
for each of the names in turn with the specified value of only_if_exists,
but this function minimizes the number of round-trip protocol exchanges
between the client and the X server.

This function returns a nonzero status if atoms are returned for
all of the names;
otherwise, it returns zero.

XInternAtoms
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadValue
errors.

To return a name for a given atom identifier, use
XGetAtomName.

char *XGetAtomName(Display *display, Atom atom);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


atom

Specifies the atom for the property name you want returned.

The
XGetAtomName
function returns the name associated with the specified atom.
If the data returned by the server is in the Latin Portable Character Encoding,
then the returned string is in the Host Portable Character Encoding.
Otherwise, the result is implementation-dependent.
To free the resulting string,
call
XFree.

XGetAtomName
can generate a
BadAtom
error.

To return the names for an array of atom identifiers, use
XGetAtomNames.

Status XGetAtomNames(Display *display, Atom *atoms, int count, char **names_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


atoms

Specifies the array of atoms.


count

Specifies the number of atoms in the array.


names_return

Returns the atom names.

The
XGetAtomNames
function returns the names associated with the specified atoms.
The names are stored in the names_return array supplied by the caller.
Calling this function is equivalent to calling
XGetAtomName
for each of the atoms in turn,
but this function minimizes the number of round-trip protocol exchanges
between the client and the X server.

This function returns a nonzero status if names are returned for
all of the atoms;
otherwise, it returns zero.

XGetAtomNames
can generate a
BadAtom
error.

Obtaining and Changing Window Properties

You can attach a property list to every window.
Each property has a name, a type, and a value
(see section 4.3).
The value is an array of 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit quantities,
whose interpretation is left to the clients. The type
char
is used to represent 8-bit quantities, the type
short
is used to represent 16-bit quantities, and the type
long
is used to represent 32-bit quantities.

Xlib provides functions that you can use to obtain,
change, update, or interchange window properties.
In addition, Xlib provides other utility functions for inter-client
communication
(see chapter 14).

To obtain the type, format, and value of a property of a given window, use
XGetWindowProperty.

int XGetWindowProperty(Display *display, Window w, Atom property, long long_offset, long long_length, Bool delete, Atom req_type, Atom *actual_type_return, int *actual_format_return, unsigned long *nitems_return, unsigned long *bytes_after_return, unsigned char **prop_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose property you want to obtain.


property

Specifies the property name.


long_offset

Specifies the offset in the specified property (in 32-bit quantities)
where the data is to be retrieved.


long_length

Specifies the length in 32-bit multiples of the data to be retrieved.


delete

Specifies a Boolean value that determines whether the property is deleted.


req_type

Specifies the atom identifier associated with the property type or
AnyPropertyType.


actual_type_return

Returns the atom identifier that defines the actual type of the property.


actual_format_return

Returns the actual format of the property.


nitems_return

Returns the actual number of 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit items
stored in the prop_return data.


bytes_after_return

Returns the number of bytes remaining to be read in the property if
a partial read was performed.


prop_return

Returns the data in the specified format.

The
XGetWindowProperty
function returns the actual type of the property; the actual format of the property;
the number of 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit items transferred; the number of bytes remaining
to be read in the property; and a pointer to the data actually returned.
XGetWindowProperty
sets the return arguments as follows:

  • If the specified property does not exist for the specified window,
    XGetWindowProperty
    returns
    None
    to actual_type_return and the value zero to
    actual_format_return and bytes_after_return.
    The nitems_return argument is empty.
    In this case, the delete argument is ignored.

  • If the specified property exists
    but its type does not match the specified type,
    XGetWindowProperty
    returns the actual property type to actual_type_return,
    the actual property format (never zero) to actual_format_return,
    and the property length in bytes
    (even if the actual_format_return is 16 or 32)
    to bytes_after_return.
    It also ignores the delete argument.
    The nitems_return argument is empty.

  • If the specified property exists and either you assign
    AnyPropertyType
    to the req_type argument or the specified type matches the actual property type,
    XGetWindowProperty
    returns the actual property type to actual_type_return and the actual
    property format (never zero) to actual_format_return.
    It also returns a value to bytes_after_return and nitems_return, by
    defining the following
    values:

  • N = actual length of the stored property in bytes
    (even if the format is 16 or 32)
    I = 4 * long_offset
    T = N - I
    L = MINIMUM(T, 4 * long_length)
    A = N - (I + L)

  • The returned value starts at byte index I in the property (indexing
    from zero), and its length in bytes is L.
    If the value for long_offset causes L to be negative,
    a
    BadValue
    error results.
    The value of bytes_after_return is A,
    giving the number of trailing unread bytes in the stored property.

If the returned format is 8, the returned data is represented as a
char
array.
If the returned format is 16, the returned data is represented as a
short
array and should be cast to that type to obtain the elements.
If the returned format is 32, the returned data is represented as a
long
array and should be cast to that type to obtain the elements.

XGetWindowProperty
always allocates one extra byte in prop_return
(even if the property is zero length)
and sets it to zero so that simple properties consisting of characters
do not have to be copied into yet another string before use.

If delete is
True
and bytes_after_return is zero,
XGetWindowProperty
deletes the property
from the window and generates a
PropertyNotify
event on the window.

The function returns
Success
if it executes successfully.
To free the resulting data,
use
XFree.

XGetWindowProperty
can generate
BadAtom,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To obtain a given window's property list, use
XListProperties.

Atom *XListProperties(Display *display, Window w, int *num_prop_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose property list you want to obtain.


num_prop_return

Returns the length of the properties array.

The
XListProperties
function returns a pointer to an array of atom properties that are defined for
the specified window or returns NULL if no properties were found.
To free the memory allocated by this function, use
XFree.

XListProperties
can generate a
BadWindow
error.

To change a property of a given window, use
XChangeProperty.

XChangeProperty(Display *display, Window w, Atom property, Atom type, int format, int mode, unsignedchar *data, int nelements);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose property you want to change.


property

Specifies the property name.


type

Specifies the type of the property.
The X server does not interpret the type but simply
passes it back to an application that later calls
XGetWindowProperty.


format

Specifies whether the data should be viewed as a list
of 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit quantities.
Possible values are 8, 16, and 32.
This information allows the X server to correctly perform
byte-swap operations as necessary.
If the format is 16-bit or 32-bit,
you must explicitly cast your data pointer to an (unsigned char *) in the call
to
XChangeProperty.


mode

Specifies the mode of the operation.
You can pass
PropModeReplace,
PropModePrepend,
or
PropModeAppend.


data

Specifies the property data.


nelements

Specifies the number of elements of the specified data format.

The
XChangeProperty
function alters the property for the specified window and
causes the X server to generate a
PropertyNotify
event on that window.
XChangeProperty
performs the following:

  • If mode is
    PropModeReplace,
    XChangeProperty
    discards the previous property value and stores the new data.

  • If mode is
    PropModePrepend
    or
    PropModeAppend,
    XChangeProperty
    inserts the specified data before the beginning of the existing data
    or onto the end of the existing data, respectively.
    The type and format must match the existing property value,
    or a
    BadMatch
    error results.
    If the property is undefined,
    it is treated as defined with the correct type and
    format with zero-length data.

If the specified format is 8, the property data must be a
char
array.
If the specified format is 16, the property data must be a
short
array.
If the specified format is 32, the property data must be a
long
array.

The lifetime of a property is not tied to the storing client.
Properties remain until explicitly deleted, until the window is destroyed,
or until the server resets.
For a discussion of what happens when the connection to the X server is closed,
see section 2.6.
The maximum size of a property is server dependent and can vary dynamically
depending on the amount of memory the server has available.
(If there is insufficient space, a
BadAlloc
error results.)

XChangeProperty
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadAtom,
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To rotate a window's property list, use
XRotateWindowProperties.

XRotateWindowProperties(Display *display, Window w, Atom properties[], int num_prop, int npositions);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


properties

Specifies the array of properties that are to be rotated.


num_prop

Specifies the length of the properties array.


npositions

Specifies the rotation amount.

The
XRotateWindowProperties
function allows you to rotate properties on a window and causes
the X server to generate
PropertyNotify
events.
If the property names in the properties array are viewed as being numbered
starting from zero and if there are num_prop property names in the list,
then the value associated with property name I becomes the value associated
with property name (I + npositions) mod N for all I from zero to N − 1.
The effect is to rotate the states by npositions places around the virtual ring
of property names (right for positive npositions,
left for negative npositions).
If npositions mod N is nonzero,
the X server generates a
PropertyNotify
event for each property in the order that they are listed in the array.
If an atom occurs more than once in the list or no property with that
name is defined for the window,
a
BadMatch
error results.
If a
BadAtom
or
BadMatch
error results,
no properties are changed.

XRotateWindowProperties
can generate
BadAtom,
BadMatch,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To delete a property on a given window, use
XDeleteProperty.

XDeleteProperty(Display *display, Window w, Atom property);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window whose property you want to delete.


property

Specifies the property name.

The
XDeleteProperty
function deletes the specified property only if the
property was defined on the specified window
and causes the X server to generate a
PropertyNotify
event on the window unless the property does not exist.

XDeleteProperty
can generate
BadAtom
and
BadWindow
errors.

Selections


Selections are one method used by applications to exchange data.
By using the property mechanism,
applications can exchange data of arbitrary types and can negotiate
the type of the data.
A selection can be thought of as an indirect property with a dynamic type.
That is, rather than having the property stored in the X server,
the property is maintained by some client (the owner).
A selection is global in nature (considered to belong to the user
but be maintained by clients) rather than being private to a particular
window subhierarchy or a particular set of clients.

Xlib provides functions that you can use to set, get, or request conversion
of selections.
This allows applications to implement the notion of current selection,
which requires that notification be sent to applications when they no
longer own the selection.
Applications that support selection often highlight the current selection
and so must be informed when another application has
acquired the selection so that they can unhighlight the selection.

When a client asks for the contents of
a selection, it specifies a selection target type.
This target type
can be used to control the transmitted representation of the contents.
For example, if the selection is “the last thing the user clicked on”
and that is currently an image, then the target type might specify
whether the contents of the image should be sent in XY format or Z format.

The target type can also be used to control the class of
contents transmitted, for example,
asking for the “looks” (fonts, line
spacing, indentation, and so forth) of a paragraph selection, not the
text of the paragraph.
The target type can also be used for other
purposes.
The protocol does not constrain the semantics.

To set the selection owner, use
XSetSelectionOwner.

XSetSelectionOwner(Display *display, Atom selection, Window owner, Time time);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


selection

Specifies the selection atom.


owner

Specifies the owner of the specified selection atom.
You can pass a window or
None.


time

Specifies the time.
You can pass either a timestamp or
CurrentTime.

The
XSetSelectionOwner
function changes the owner and last-change time for the specified selection
and has no effect if the specified time is earlier than the current
last-change time of the specified selection
or is later than the current X server time.
Otherwise, the last-change time is set to the specified time,
with
CurrentTime
replaced by the current server time.
If the owner window is specified as
None,
then the owner of the selection becomes
None
(that is, no owner).
Otherwise, the owner of the selection becomes the client executing
the request.

If the new owner (whether a client or
None)
is not
the same as the current owner of the selection and the current
owner is not
None,
the current owner is sent a
SelectionClear
event.
If the client that is the owner of a selection is later
terminated (that is, its connection is closed)
or if the owner window it has specified in the request is later
destroyed,
the owner of the selection automatically
reverts to
None,
but the last-change time is not affected.
The selection atom is uninterpreted by the X server.
XGetSelectionOwner
returns the owner window, which is reported in
SelectionRequest
and
SelectionClear
events.
Selections are global to the X server.

XSetSelectionOwner
can generate
BadAtom
and
BadWindow
errors.

To return the selection owner, use
XGetSelectionOwner.

Window XGetSelectionOwner(Display *display, Atom selection);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


selection

Specifies the selection atom whose owner you want returned.

The
XGetSelectionOwner
function
returns the window ID associated with the window that currently owns the
specified selection.
If no selection was specified, the function returns the constant
None.
If
None
is returned,
there is no owner for the selection.

XGetSelectionOwner
can generate a
BadAtom
error.

To request conversion of a selection, use
XConvertSelection.

XConvertSelection(Display *display, Atom selection, Atom target, Atom property, Window requestor, Time time);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


selection

Specifies the selection atom.


target

Specifies the target atom.


property

Specifies the property name.
You also can pass
None.


requestor

Specifies the requestor.


time

Specifies the time.
You can pass either a timestamp or
CurrentTime.

XConvertSelection
requests that the specified selection be converted to the specified target
type:

  • If the specified selection has an owner, the X server sends a
    SelectionRequest
    event to that owner.

  • If no owner for the specified
    selection exists, the X server generates a
    SelectionNotify
    event to the
    requestor with property
    None.

The arguments are passed on unchanged in either of the events.
There are two predefined selection atoms: PRIMARY and SECONDARY.

XConvertSelection
can generate
BadAtom
and
BadWindow
errors.

Chapter 5. Pixmap and Cursor Functions

Table of Contents

Creating and Freeing PixmapsCreating, Recoloring, and Freeing Cursors

Creating and Freeing Pixmaps

Pixmaps can only be used on the screen on which they were created.
Pixmaps are off-screen resources that are used for various operations,
such as defining cursors as tiling patterns
or as the source for certain raster operations.
Most graphics requests can operate either on a window or on a pixmap.
A bitmap is a single bit-plane pixmap.

To create a pixmap of a given size, use
XCreatePixmap.

Pixmap XCreatePixmap(Display *display, Drawable d, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int depth);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies which screen the pixmap is created on.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which define the dimensions of the pixmap.


depth

Specifies the depth of the pixmap.

The
XCreatePixmap
function creates a pixmap of the width, height, and depth you specified
and returns a pixmap ID that identifies it.
It is valid to pass an
InputOnly
window to the drawable argument.
The width and height arguments must be nonzero,
or a
BadValue
error results.
The depth argument must be one of the depths supported by the screen
of the specified drawable,
or a
BadValue
error results.

The server uses the specified drawable to determine on which screen
to create the pixmap.
The pixmap can be used only on this screen
and only with other drawables of the same depth (see
XCopyPlane
for an exception to this rule).
The initial contents of the pixmap are undefined.

XCreatePixmap
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadDrawable,
and
BadValue
errors.

To free all storage associated with a specified pixmap, use
XFreePixmap.

XFreePixmap(Display *display, Pixmap pixmap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


pixmap

Specifies the pixmap.

The
XFreePixmap
function first deletes the association between the pixmap ID and the pixmap.
Then, the X server frees the pixmap storage when there are no references to it.
The pixmap should never be referenced again.

XFreePixmap
can generate a
BadPixmap
error.

Creating, Recoloring, and Freeing Cursors

Each window can have a different cursor defined for it.
Whenever the pointer is in a visible window,
it is set to the cursor defined for that window.
If no cursor was defined for that window,
the cursor is the one defined for the parent window.

From X's perspective,
a cursor consists of a cursor source, mask, colors, and a hotspot.
The mask pixmap determines the shape of the cursor and must be a depth
of one.
The source pixmap must have a depth of one,
and the colors determine the colors of the source.
The hotspot defines the point on the cursor that is reported
when a pointer event occurs.
There may be limitations imposed by the hardware on
cursors as to size and whether a mask is implemented.

XQueryBestCursor
can be used to find out what sizes are possible.
There is a standard font for creating cursors, but
Xlib provides functions that you can use to create cursors
from an arbitrary font or from bitmaps.

To create a cursor from the standard cursor font, use
XCreateFontCursor.

#include <X11/cursorfont.h>

Cursor XCreateFontCursor(Display *display, unsigned int shape);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


shape

Specifies the shape of the cursor.

X provides a set of standard cursor shapes in a special font named
cursor.
Applications are encouraged to use this interface for their cursors
because the font can be customized for the individual display type.
The shape argument specifies which glyph of the standard fonts
to use.

The hotspot comes from the information stored in the cursor font.
The initial colors of a cursor are a black foreground and a white
background (see
XRecolorCursor).
For further information about cursor shapes,
see appendix B.

XCreateFontCursor
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadValue
errors.

To create a cursor from font glyphs, use
XCreateGlyphCursor.

Cursor XCreateGlyphCursor(Display *display, Font source_font, Font mask_font, unsigned int source_char, unsigned int mask_char, XColor *foreground_color, XColor *background_color);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


source_font

Specifies the font for the source glyph.


mask_font

Specifies the font for the mask glyph or
None.


source_char

Specifies the character glyph for the source.


mask_char

Specifies the glyph character for the mask.


foreground_color

Specifies the RGB values for the foreground of the source.


background_color

Specifies the RGB values for the background of the source.

The
XCreateGlyphCursor
function is similar to
XCreatePixmapCursor
except that the source and mask bitmaps are obtained from the specified
font glyphs.
The source_char must be a defined glyph in source_font,
or a
BadValue
error results.
If mask_font is given,
mask_char must be a defined glyph in mask_font,
or a
BadValue
error results.
The mask_font and character are optional.
The origins of the source_char and mask_char (if defined) glyphs are
positioned coincidently and define the hotspot.
The source_char and mask_char need not have the same bounding box metrics,
and there is no restriction on the placement of the hotspot relative to the bounding
boxes.
If no mask_char is given, all pixels of the source are displayed.
You can free the fonts immediately by calling
XFreeFont
if no further explicit references to them are to be made.

For 2-byte matrix fonts,
the 16-bit value should be formed with the byte1
member in the most significant byte and the byte2 member in the
least significant byte.

XCreateGlyphCursor
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadFont,
and
BadValue
errors.

To create a cursor from two bitmaps,
use
XCreatePixmapCursor.

Cursor XCreatePixmapCursor(Display *display, Pixmap source, Pixmap mask, XColor *foreground_color, XColor *background_color, unsigned int x, unsigned int y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


source

Specifies the shape of the source cursor.


mask

Specifies the cursor's source bits to be displayed or
None.


foreground_color

Specifies the RGB values for the foreground of the source.


background_color

Specifies the RGB values for the background of the source.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which indicate the hotspot relative to the
source's origin.

The
XCreatePixmapCursor
function creates a cursor and returns the cursor ID associated with it.
The foreground and background RGB values must be specified using
foreground_color and background_color,
even if the X server only has a
StaticGray
or
GrayScale
screen.
The foreground color is used for the pixels set to 1 in the
source, and the background color is used for the pixels set to 0.
Both source and mask, if specified, must have depth one (or a
BadMatch
error results) but can have any root.
The mask argument defines the shape of the cursor.
The pixels set to 1 in the mask define which source pixels are displayed,
and the pixels set to 0 define which pixels are ignored.
If no mask is given,
all pixels of the source are displayed.
The mask, if present, must be the same size as the pixmap defined by the
source argument, or a
BadMatch
error results.
The hotspot must be a point within the source,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

The components of the cursor can be transformed arbitrarily to meet
display limitations.
The pixmaps can be freed immediately if no further explicit references
to them are to be made.
Subsequent drawing in the source or mask pixmap has an undefined effect on the
cursor.
The X server might or might not make a copy of the pixmap.

XCreatePixmapCursor
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadPixmap
errors.

To determine useful cursor sizes, use
XQueryBestCursor.

Status XQueryBestCursor(Display *display, Drawable d, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int *width_return, unsigned int *height_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable, which indicates the screen.


width


height

Specify the width and height of the cursor that you want the size
information for.


width_return


height_return

Return the best width and height that is closest to the specified width
and height.

Some displays allow larger cursors than other displays.
The
XQueryBestCursor
function provides a way to find out what size cursors are actually
possible on the display.

It returns the largest size that can be displayed.
Applications should be prepared to use smaller cursors on displays that
cannot support large ones.

XQueryBestCursor
can generate a
BadDrawable
error.

To change the color of a given cursor, use
XRecolorCursor.

XRecolorCursor(Display *display, Cursor cursor, XColor *foreground_color, XColor *background_color);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


cursor

Specifies the cursor.


foreground_color

Specifies the RGB values for the foreground of the source.


background_color

Specifies the RGB values for the background of the source.

The
XRecolorCursor
function changes the color of the specified cursor, and
if the cursor is being displayed on a screen,
the change is visible immediately.
The pixel members of the
XColor
structures are ignored; only the RGB values are used.

XRecolorCursor
can generate a
BadCursor
error.

To free (destroy) a given cursor, use
XFreeCursor.

XFreeCursor(Display *display, Cursor cursor);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


cursor

Specifies the cursor.

The
XFreeCursor
function deletes the association between the cursor resource ID
and the specified cursor.
The cursor storage is freed when no other resource references it.
The specified cursor ID should not be referred to again.

XFreeCursor
can generate a
BadCursor
error.

Chapter 6. Color Management Functions

Table of Contents

Color StructuresColor StringsRGB Device String SpecificationRGB Intensity String SpecificationDevice-Independent String SpecificationsColor Conversion Contexts and Gamut MappingCreating, Copying, and Destroying ColormapsMapping Color Names to ValuesAllocating and Freeing Color CellsModifying and Querying Colormap CellsColor Conversion Context FunctionsGetting and Setting the Color Conversion Context of a ColormapObtaining the Default Color Conversion ContextColor Conversion Context MacrosModifying Attributes of a Color Conversion ContextCreating and Freeing a Color Conversion ContextConverting between Color SpacesCallback FunctionsPrototype Gamut Compression ProcedureSupplied Gamut Compression ProceduresPrototype White Point Adjustment ProcedureSupplied White Point Adjustment ProceduresGamut Querying FunctionsRed, Green, and Blue QueriesCIELab QueriesCIELuv QueriesTekHVC QueriesColor Management ExtensionsColor SpacesAdding Device-Independent Color SpacesQuerying Color Space Format and PrefixCreating Additional Color SpacesParse String CallbackColor Specification Conversion CallbackFunction SetsAdding Function SetsCreating Additional Function Sets

Each X window always has an associated colormap that
provides a level of indirection between pixel values and colors displayed
on the screen.
Xlib provides functions that you can use to manipulate a colormap.
The X protocol defines colors using values in the RGB color space.
The RGB color space is device dependent;
rendering an RGB value on differing output devices typically results
in different colors.
Xlib also provides a means for clients to specify color using
device-independent color spaces for consistent results across devices.
Xlib supports device-independent color spaces derivable from the CIE XYZ
color space.
This includes the CIE XYZ, xyY, L*u*v*, and L*a*b* color spaces as well as
the TekHVC color space.

This chapter discusses how to:

  • Create, copy, and destroy a colormap

  • Specify colors by name or value

  • Allocate, modify, and free color cells

  • Read entries in a colormap

  • Convert between color spaces

  • Control aspects of color conversion

  • Query the color gamut of a screen

  • Add new color spaces

All functions, types, and symbols in this chapter with the prefix “Xcms”
are defined in
<X11/Xcms.h>.



The remaining functions and types are defined in
<X11/Xlib.h>.


Functions in this chapter manipulate the representation of color on the
screen.
For each possible value that a pixel can take in a window,
there is a color cell in the colormap.
For example,
if a window is 4 bits deep, pixel values 0 through 15 are defined.
A colormap is a collection of color cells.
A color cell consists of a triple of red, green, and blue (RGB) values.
The hardware imposes limits on the number of significant
bits in these values.
As each pixel is read out of display memory, the pixel
is looked up in a colormap.
The RGB value of the cell determines what color is displayed on the screen.
On a grayscale display with a black-and-white monitor,
the values are combined to determine the brightness on the screen.

Typically, an application allocates color cells or sets of color cells
to obtain the desired colors.
The client can allocate read-only cells.
In which case,
the pixel values for these colors can be shared among multiple applications,
and the RGB value of the cell cannot be changed.
If the client allocates read/write cells,
they are exclusively owned by the client,
and the color associated with the pixel value can be changed at will.
Cells must be allocated (and, if read/write, initialized with an RGB value)
by a client to obtain desired colors.
The use of pixel value for an
unallocated cell results in an undefined color.

Because colormaps are associated with windows, X supports displays
with multiple colormaps and, indeed, different types of colormaps.
If there are insufficient colormap resources in the display,
some windows will display in their true colors, and others
will display with incorrect colors.
A window manager usually controls which windows are displayed
in their true colors if more than one colormap is required for
the color resources the applications are using.
At any time, there is a set of installed colormaps for a screen.
Windows using one of the installed colormaps display with true colors, and
windows using other colormaps generally display with incorrect colors.
You can control the set of installed colormaps by using
XInstallColormap
and
XUninstallColormap.

Colormaps are local to a particular screen.
Screens always have a default colormap,
and programs typically allocate cells out of this colormap.
Generally, you should not write applications that monopolize
color resources.
Although some hardware supports multiple colormaps installed at one time,
many of the hardware displays
built today support only a single installed colormap, so the primitives
are written to encourage sharing of colormap entries between applications.

The
DefaultColormap
macro returns the default colormap.
The
DefaultVisual
macro
returns the default visual type for the specified screen.

Possible visual types are
StaticGray,
GrayScale,
StaticColor,
PseudoColor,
TrueColor,
or
DirectColor
(see section 3.1).

Color Structures

Functions that operate only on RGB color space values use an
XColor
structure, which contains:


typedef struct {
	unsigned long pixel;	/* pixel value */
	unsigned short red, green, blue;	/* rgb values */
	char flags;	/* DoRed, DoGreen, DoBlue */	
	char pad;
} XColor;

The red, green, and blue values are always in the range 0 to 65535
inclusive, independent of the number of bits actually used in the
display hardware.
The server scales these values down to the range used by the hardware.
Black is represented by (0,0,0),
and white is represented by (65535,65535,65535).

In some functions,
the flags member controls which of the red, green, and blue members is used
and can be the inclusive OR of zero or more of
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue.

Functions that operate on all color space values use an
XcmsColor
structure.
This structure contains a union of substructures,
each supporting color specification encoding for a particular color space.
Like the
XColor
structure, the
XcmsColor
structure contains pixel
and color specification information (the spec member in the
XcmsColor
structure).


typedef unsigned long XcmsColorFormat;			/* Color Specification Format */

typedef struct {
	union {
		XcmsRGB RGB;
		XcmsRGBi RGBi;
		XcmsCIEXYZ CIEXYZ;
		XcmsCIEuvY CIEuvY;
		XcmsCIExyY CIExyY;
		XcmsCIELab CIELab;
		XcmsCIELuv CIELuv;
		XcmsTekHVC TekHVC;
		XcmsPad Pad;
	} spec;
	unsigned long pixel;
	XcmsColorFormat format;
} XcmsColor;			/* Xcms Color Structure */

Because the color specification can be encoded for the various color spaces,
encoding for the spec member is identified by the format member,
which is of type
XcmsColorFormat.
The following macros define standard formats.

#define          XcmsUndefinedFormat   0x00000000
#define          XcmsCIEXYZFormat      0x00000001  /* CIE XYZ */
#define          XcmsCIEuvYFormat      0x00000002  /* CIE u'v'Y */
#define          XcmsCIExyYFormat      0x00000003  /* CIE xyY */
#define          XcmsCIELabFormat      0x00000004  /* CIE L*a*b* */
#define          XcmsCIELuvFormat      0x00000005  /* CIE L*u*v* */
#define          XcmsTekHVCFormat      0x00000006  /* TekHVC */
#define          XcmsRGBFormat         0x80000000  /* RGB Device */
#define          XcmsRGBiFormat        0x80000001  /* RGB Intensity */

Formats for device-independent color spaces are
distinguishable from those for device-dependent spaces by the 32nd bit.
If this bit is set,
it indicates that the color specification is in a device-dependent form;
otherwise, it is in a device-independent form.
If the 31st bit is set,
this indicates that the color space has been added to Xlib at run time
(see section 6.12.4).
The format value for a color space added at run time may be different each
time the program is executed.
If references to such a color space must be made outside the client
(for example, storing a color specification in a file),
then reference should be made by color space string prefix
(see
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
and
XcmsPrefixOfFormat).

Data types that describe the color specification encoding for the various
color spaces are defined as follows:


typedef double XcmsFloat;

typedef struct {
	unsigned short red;	/* 0x0000 to 0xffff */
	unsigned short green;	/* 0x0000 to 0xffff */
	unsigned short blue;	/* 0x0000 to 0xffff */
} XcmsRGB;		/* RGB Device */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat red;	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
	XcmsFloat green;	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
	XcmsFloat blue;	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
} XcmsRGBi;		/* RGB Intensity */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat X;
	XcmsFloat Y;	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
	XcmsFloat Z;
} XcmsCIEXYZ;		/* CIE XYZ */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat u_prime;	/* 0.0 to ~0.6 */
	XcmsFloat v_prime;	/* 0.0 to ~0.6 */
	XcmsFloat Y; 	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
} XcmsCIEuvY;		/* CIE u'v'Y */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat x; 	/* 0.0 to ~.75 */
	XcmsFloat y; 	/* 0.0 to ~.85 */
	XcmsFloat Y; 	/* 0.0 to 1.0 */
} XcmsCIExyY;		/* CIE xyY */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat L_star; 	/* 0.0 to 100.0 */
	XcmsFloat a_star;
	XcmsFloat b_star;
} XcmsCIELab;		/* CIE L*a*b* */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat L_star; 	/* 0.0 to 100.0 */
	XcmsFloat u_star;
	XcmsFloat v_star;
} XcmsCIELuv;		/* CIE L*u*v* */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat H; 	/* 0.0 to 360.0 */
	XcmsFloat V; 	/* 0.0 to 100.0 */
	XcmsFloat C; 	/* 0.0 to 100.0 */
} XcmsTekHVC;		/* TekHVC */


typedef struct {
	XcmsFloat pad0;
	XcmsFloat pad1;
	XcmsFloat pad2;
	XcmsFloat pad3;
} XcmsPad;		/* four doubles */

The device-dependent formats provided allow color specification in:

  • RGB Intensity
    (XcmsRGBi)

  • Red, green, and blue linear intensity values,
    floating-point values from 0.0 to 1.0,
    where 1.0 indicates full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.

  • RGB Device
    (XcmsRGB)

  • Red, green, and blue values appropriate for the specified output device.
    XcmsRGB
    values are of type unsigned short,
    scaled from 0 to 65535 inclusive,
    and are interchangeable with the red, green, and blue values in an
    XColor
    structure.

It is important to note that RGB Intensity values are not gamma corrected
values.
In contrast,
RGB Device values generated as a result of converting color specifications
are always gamma corrected, and
RGB Device values acquired as a result of querying a colormap
or passed in by the client are assumed by Xlib to be gamma corrected.
The term RGB value in this manual always refers to an RGB Device value.

Color Strings

Xlib provides a mechanism for using string names for colors.
A color string may either contain an abstract color name
or a numerical color specification.
Color strings are case-insensitive.

Color strings are used in the following functions:

Xlib supports the use of abstract color names, for example, red or blue.
A value for this abstract name is obtained by searching one or more color
name databases.
Xlib first searches zero or more client-side databases;
the number, location, and content of these databases is
implementation-dependent and might depend on the current locale.
If the name is not found, Xlib then looks for the color in the
X server's database.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.

A numerical color specification
consists of a color space name and a set of values in the following syntax:

<color_space_name>:<value>/.../<value>

The following are examples of valid color strings.

"CIEXYZ:0.3227/0.28133/0.2493"
"RGBi:1.0/0.0/0.0"
"rgb:00/ff/00"
"CIELuv:50.0/0.0/0.0"

The syntax and semantics of numerical specifications are given
for each standard color space in the following sections.

RGB Device String Specification

An RGB Device specification is identified by
the prefix “rgb:” and conforms to the following syntax:

rgb:<red>/<green>/<blue>

    <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
    h := single hexadecimal digits (case insignificant)

Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits,
hh the value scaled in 8 bits,
hhh the value scaled in 12 bits,
and hhhh the value scaled in 16 bits, respectively.

Typical examples are the strings “rgb:ea/75/52” and “rgb:ccc/320/320”,
but mixed numbers of hexadecimal digit strings
(“rgb:ff/a5/0” and “rgb:ccc/32/0”)
are also allowed.

For backward compatibility, an older syntax for RGB Device is
supported, but its continued use is not encouraged.
The syntax is an initial sharp sign character followed by
a numeric specification, in one of the following formats:


#RGB	(4 bits each)
#RRGGBB	(8 bits each)
#RRRGGGBBB	(12 bits each)
#RRRRGGGGBBBB	(16 bits each)

The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.
When fewer than 16 bits each are specified,
they represent the most significant bits of the value
(unlike the “rgb:” syntax, in which values are scaled).
For example, the string “#3a7” is the same as “#3000a0007000”.

RGB Intensity String Specification

An RGB intensity specification is identified
by the prefix “rgbi:” and conforms to the following syntax:

rgbi:<red>/<green>/<blue>

Note that red, green, and blue are floating-point values
between 0.0 and 1.0, inclusive.
The input format for these values is an optional sign,
a string of numbers possibly containing a decimal point,
and an optional exponent field containing an E or e
followed by a possibly signed integer string.

Device-Independent String Specifications

The standard device-independent string specifications have
the following syntax:

CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>
CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>
CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>
CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>
CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>
TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>

All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are
floating-point values.
The syntax for these values is an optional plus or minus sign,
a string of digits possibly containing a decimal point,
and an optional exponent field consisting of an “E” or “e”
followed by an optional plus or minus followed by a string of digits.

Color Conversion Contexts and Gamut Mapping

When Xlib converts device-independent color specifications
into device-dependent specifications and vice versa,
it uses knowledge about the color limitations of the screen hardware.
This information, typically called the device profile,

is available in a Color Conversion Context (CCC).

Because a specified color may be outside the color gamut of the target screen
and the white point associated with the color specification may differ
from the white point inherent to the screen,
Xlib applies gamut mapping when it encounters certain conditions:

  • Gamut compression occurs when conversion of device-independent
    color specifications to device-dependent color specifications
    results in a color out of the target screen's gamut.

  • White adjustment occurs when the inherent white point of the screen
    differs from the white point assumed by the client.

Gamut handling methods are stored as callbacks in the CCC,
which in turn are used by the color space conversion routines.
Client data is also stored in the CCC for each callback.
The CCC also contains the white point the client assumes to be
associated with color specifications (that is, the Client White Point).




The client can specify the gamut handling callbacks and client data
as well as the Client White Point.
Xlib does not preclude the X client from performing other
forms of gamut handling (for example, gamut expansion);
however, Xlib does not provide direct support for gamut handling
other than white adjustment and gamut compression.

Associated with each colormap is an initial CCC transparently generated by
Xlib.

Therefore,
when you specify a colormap as an argument to an Xlib function,
you are indirectly specifying a CCC.


There is a default CCC associated with each screen.
Newly created CCCs inherit attributes from the default CCC,
so the default CCC attributes can be modified to affect new CCCs.

Xcms functions in which gamut mapping can occur return
Status
and have specific status values defined for them,
as follows:

  • XcmsFailure
    indicates that the function failed.

  • XcmsSuccess
    indicates that the function succeeded.
    In addition,
    if the function performed any color conversion,
    the colors did not need to be compressed.

  • XcmsSuccessWithCompression
    indicates the function performed color conversion
    and at least one of the colors needed to be compressed.
    The gamut compression method is determined by the gamut compression
    procedure in the CCC that is specified directly as a function argument
    or in the CCC indirectly specified by means of the colormap argument.

Creating, Copying, and Destroying Colormaps

To create a colormap for a screen, use
XCreateColormap.

Colormap XCreateColormap(Display *display, Window w, Visual *visual, int alloc);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window on whose screen you want to create a colormap.


visual

Specifies a visual type supported on the screen.
If the visual type is not one supported by the screen,
a
BadMatch
error results.


alloc

Specifies the colormap entries to be allocated.
You can pass
AllocNone
or
AllocAll.

The
XCreateColormap
function creates a colormap of the specified visual type for the screen
on which the specified window resides and returns the colormap ID
associated with it.
Note that the specified window is only used to determine the screen.

The initial values of the colormap entries are undefined for the
visual classes
GrayScale,
PseudoColor,
and
DirectColor.
For
StaticGray,
StaticColor,
and
TrueColor,
the entries have defined values,
but those values are specific to the visual and are not defined by X.
For
StaticGray,
StaticColor,
and
TrueColor,
alloc must be
AllocNone,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
For the other visual classes,
if alloc is
AllocNone,
the colormap initially has no allocated entries,
and clients can allocate them.
For information about the visual types,
see section 3.1.

If alloc is
AllocAll,
the entire colormap is allocated writable.
The initial values of all allocated entries are undefined.
For
GrayScale
and
PseudoColor,
the effect is as if an
XAllocColorCells
call returned all pixel values from zero to N - 1,
where N is the colormap entries value in the specified visual.
For
DirectColor,
the effect is as if an
XAllocColorPlanes
call returned a pixel value of zero and red_mask, green_mask,
and blue_mask values containing the same bits as the corresponding
masks in the specified visual.
However, in all cases,
none of these entries can be freed by using
XFreeColors.

XCreateColormap
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To create a new colormap when the allocation out of a previously
shared colormap has failed because of resource exhaustion, use
XCopyColormapAndFree.

Colormap XCopyColormapAndFree(Display *display, Colormap colormap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.

The
XCopyColormapAndFree
function creates a colormap of the same visual type and for the same screen
as the specified colormap and returns the new colormap ID.
It also moves all of the client's existing allocation from the specified
colormap to the new colormap with their color values intact
and their read-only or writable characteristics intact and frees those entries
in the specified colormap.
Color values in other entries in the new colormap are undefined.
If the specified colormap was created by the client with alloc set to
AllocAll,
the new colormap is also created with
AllocAll,
all color values for all entries are copied from the specified colormap,
and then all entries in the specified colormap are freed.
If the specified colormap was not created by the client with
AllocAll,
the allocations to be moved are all those pixels and planes
that have been allocated by the client using
XAllocColor,
XAllocNamedColor,
XAllocColorCells,
or
XAllocColorPlanes
and that have not been freed since they were allocated.

XCopyColormapAndFree
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadColor
errors.

To destroy a colormap, use
XFreeColormap.

XFreeColormap(Display *display, Colormap colormap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap that you want to destroy.

The
XFreeColormap
function deletes the association between the colormap resource ID
and the colormap and frees the colormap storage.
However, this function has no effect on the default colormap for a screen.
If the specified colormap is an installed map for a screen,
it is uninstalled (see
XUninstallColormap).
If the specified colormap is defined as the colormap for a window (by
XCreateWindow,
XSetWindowColormap,
or
XChangeWindowAttributes),
XFreeColormap
changes the colormap associated with the window to
None
and generates a
ColormapNotify
event.
X does not define the colors displayed for a window with a colormap of
None.

XFreeColormap
can generate a
BadColor
error.

Mapping Color Names to Values

To map a color name to an RGB value, use
XLookupColor.

Status XLookupColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *color_name, XColor *exact_def_return, XColor *screen_def_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_name

Specifies the color name string (for example, red) whose color
definition structure you want returned.


exact_def_return

Returns the exact RGB values.


screen_def_return

Returns the closest RGB values provided by the hardware.

The
XLookupColor
function looks up the string name of a color with respect to the screen
associated with the specified colormap.
It returns both the exact color values and
the closest values provided by the screen
with respect to the visual type of the specified colormap.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
XLookupColor
returns nonzero if the name is resolved;
otherwise, it returns zero.

XLookupColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

To map a color name to the exact RGB value, use
XParseColor.

Status XParseColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *spec, XColor *exact_def_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


spec

Specifies the color name string;
case is ignored.


exact_def_return

Returns the exact color value for later use and sets the
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue
flags.

The
XParseColor
function looks up the string name of a color with respect to the screen
associated with the specified colormap.
It returns the exact color value.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
XParseColor
returns nonzero if the name is resolved;
otherwise, it returns zero.

XParseColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

To map a color name to a value in an arbitrary color space, use
XcmsLookupColor.

Status XcmsLookupColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *color_string, XcmsColor *color_exact_return, XcmsColor *color_screen_return, XcmsColorFormat result_format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_string

Specifies the color string(St.


color_exact_return

Returns the color specification parsed from the color string
or parsed from the corresponding string found in a color-name database.


color_screen_return

Returns the color that can be reproduced on the screen.


result_format

Specifies the color format for the returned color
specifications (color_screen_return and color_exact_return arguments).
If the format is
XcmsUndefinedFormat
and the color string contains a
numerical color specification,
the specification is returned in the format used in that numerical
color specification.
If the format is
XcmsUndefinedFormat
and the color string contains a color name,
the specification is returned in the format used
to store the color in the database.

The
XcmsLookupColor
function looks up the string name of a color with respect to the screen
associated with the specified colormap.
It returns both the exact color values and
the closest values provided by the screen
with respect to the visual type of the specified colormap.
The values are returned in the format specified by result_format.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
XcmsLookupColor
returns
XcmsSuccess
or
XcmsSuccessWithCompression
if the name is resolved; otherwise, it returns
XcmsFailure.
If
XcmsSuccessWithCompression
is returned, the color specification returned in
color_screen_return is the result of gamut compression.

Allocating and Freeing Color Cells

There are two ways of allocating color cells:
explicitly as read-only entries, one pixel value at a time,
or read/write,
where you can allocate a number of color cells and planes simultaneously.

A read-only cell has its RGB value set by the server.

Read/write cells do not have defined colors initially;
functions described in the next section must be used to store values into them.
Although it is possible for any client to store values into a read/write
cell allocated by another client,
read/write cells normally should be considered private to the client
that allocated them.

Read-only colormap cells are shared among clients.
The server counts each allocation and freeing of the cell by clients.
When the last client frees a shared cell, the cell is finally deallocated.
If a single client allocates the same read-only cell multiple
times, the server counts each such allocation, not just the first one.

To allocate a read-only color cell with an RGB value, use
XAllocColor.

Status XAllocColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XColor *screen_in_out);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


screen_in_out

Specifies and returns the values actually used in the colormap.

The
XAllocColor
function allocates a read-only colormap entry corresponding to the closest
RGB value supported by the hardware.
XAllocColor
returns the pixel value of the color closest to the specified
RGB elements supported by the hardware
and returns the RGB value actually used.
The corresponding colormap cell is read-only.
In addition,
XAllocColor
returns nonzero if it succeeded or zero if it failed.




Multiple clients that request the same effective RGB value can be assigned
the same read-only entry, thus allowing entries to be shared.
When the last client deallocates a shared cell, it is deallocated.
XAllocColor
does not use or affect the flags in the
XColor
structure.

XAllocColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

delim %%

To allocate a read-only color cell with a color in arbitrary format, use
XcmsAllocColor.

Status XcmsAllocColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsColor *color_in_out, XcmsColorFormat result_format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_in_out

Specifies the color to allocate and returns the pixel and color
that is actually used in the colormap.


result_format

Specifies the color format for the returned color specification.

The
XcmsAllocColor
function is similar to
XAllocColor
except the color can be specified in any format.
The
XcmsAllocColor
function ultimately calls
XAllocColor
to allocate a read-only color cell (colormap entry) with the specified color.
XcmsAllocColor
first converts the color specified
to an RGB value and then passes this to
XAllocColor.
XcmsAllocColor
returns the pixel value of the color cell and the color specification
actually allocated.
This returned color specification is the result of converting the RGB value
returned by
XAllocColor
into the format specified with the result_format argument.
If there is no interest in a returned color specification,
unnecessary computation can be bypassed if result_format is set to
XcmsRGBFormat.
The corresponding colormap cell is read-only.
If this routine returns
XcmsFailure,
the color_in_out color specification is left unchanged.

XcmsAllocColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

To allocate a read-only color cell using a color name and return the closest
color supported by the hardware in RGB format, use
XAllocNamedColor.

Status XAllocNamedColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *color_name, XColor *screen_def_return, XColor *exact_def_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_name

Specifies the color name string (for example, red) whose color
definition structure you want returned.


screen_def_return

Returns the closest RGB values provided by the hardware.


exact_def_return

Returns the exact RGB values.

The
XAllocNamedColor
function looks up the named color with respect to the screen that is
associated with the specified colormap.
It returns both the exact database definition and
the closest color supported by the screen.
The allocated color cell is read-only.
The pixel value is returned in screen_def_return.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
If screen_def_return and exact_def_return
point to the same structure, the pixel field will be set correctly,
but the color values are undefined.
XAllocNamedColor
returns nonzero if a cell is allocated;
otherwise, it returns zero.

XAllocNamedColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

To allocate a read-only color cell using a color name and return the closest
color supported by the hardware in an arbitrary format, use
XcmsAllocNamedColor.

Status XcmsAllocNamedColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *color_string, XcmsColor *color_screen_return, XcmsColor *color_exact_return, XcmsColorFormat result_format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_string

Specifies the color string whose color definition structure is to be
returned.


color_screen_return

Returns the pixel value of the color cell and color specification
that actually is stored for that cell.


color_exact_return

Returns the color specification parsed from the color string
or parsed from the corresponding string found in a color-name database.


result_format

Specifies the color format for the returned color
specifications (color_screen_return and color_exact_return arguments).
If the format is
XcmsUndefinedFormat
and the color string contains a
numerical color specification,
the specification is returned in the format used in that numerical
color specification.
If the format is
XcmsUndefinedFormat
and the color string contains a color name,
the specification is returned in the format used
to store the color in the database.

The
XcmsAllocNamedColor
function is similar to
XAllocNamedColor
except that the color returned can be in any format specified.
This function
ultimately calls
XAllocColor
to allocate a read-only color cell with
the color specified by a color string.
The color string is parsed into an
XcmsColor
structure (see
XcmsLookupColor),
converted
to an RGB value, and finally passed to
XAllocColor.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.

This function returns both the color specification as a result
of parsing (exact specification) and the actual color specification
stored (screen specification).
This screen specification is the result of converting the RGB value
returned by
XAllocColor
into the format specified in result_format.
If there is no interest in a returned color specification,
unnecessary computation can be bypassed if result_format is set to
XcmsRGBFormat.
If color_screen_return and color_exact_return
point to the same structure, the pixel field will be set correctly,
but the color values are undefined.

XcmsAllocNamedColor
can generate a
BadColor
error.

To allocate read/write color cell and color plane combinations for a
PseudoColor
model, use
XAllocColorCells.

Status XAllocColorCells(Display *display, Colormap colormap, Bool contig, unsigned long plane_masks_return[], unsigned int nplanes, unsigned long pixels_return[], unsigned int npixels);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


contig

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates whether the planes must be contiguous.


plane_mask_return

Returns an array of plane masks.


nplanes

Specifies the number of plane masks that are to be returned in the plane masks
array.


pixels_return

Returns an array of pixel values.


npixels

Specifies the number of pixel values that are to be returned in the
pixels_return array.

The
XAllocColorCells
function allocates read/write color cells.
The number of colors must be positive and the number of planes nonnegative,
or a
BadValue
error results.
If ncolors and nplanes are requested,
then ncolors pixels
and nplane plane masks are returned.
No mask will have any bits set to 1 in common with
any other mask or with any of the pixels.
By ORing together each pixel with zero or more masks,
ncolors × 2nplanes
distinct pixels can be produced.
All of these are
allocated writable by the request.
For
GrayScale
or
PseudoColor,
each mask has exactly one bit set to 1.
For
DirectColor,
each has exactly three bits set to 1.
If contig is
True
and if all masks are ORed
together, a single contiguous set of bits set to 1 will be formed for
GrayScale
or
PseudoColor
and three contiguous sets of bits set to 1 (one within each
pixel subfield) for
DirectColor.
The RGB values of the allocated
entries are undefined.
XAllocColorCells
returns nonzero if it succeeded or zero if it failed.

XAllocColorCells
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.

To allocate read/write color resources for a
DirectColor
model, use
XAllocColorPlanes.

Status XAllocColorPlanes(Display *display, Colormap colormap, Bool contig, unsigned long pixels_return[], int ncolors, int nreds, int ngreens, int nblues, unsigned long *rmask_return, unsigned long *gmask_return, unsigned long *bmask_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


contig

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates whether the planes must be contiguous.


pixels_return

Returns an array of pixel values.
XAllocColorPlanes
returns the pixel values in this array.


ncolors

Specifies the number of pixel values that are to be returned in the
pixels_return array.


nreds


ngreens


nblues

Specify the number of red, green, and blue planes.
The value you pass must be nonnegative.


rmask_return


gmask_return


bmask_return

Return bit masks for the red, green, and blue planes.

The specified ncolors must be positive;
and nreds, ngreens, and nblues must be nonnegative,
or a
BadValue
error results.
If ncolors colors, nreds reds, ngreens greens, and nblues blues are requested,
ncolors pixels are returned; and the masks have nreds, ngreens, and
nblues bits set to 1, respectively.
If contig is
True,
each mask will have
a contiguous set of bits set to 1.
No mask will have any bits set to 1 in common with
any other mask or with any of the pixels.
For
DirectColor,
each mask
will lie within the corresponding pixel subfield.
By ORing together
subsets of masks with each pixel value,
ncolors × 2(nreds+ngreens+nblues)
distinct pixel values can be produced.
All of these are allocated by the request.
However, in the
colormap, there are only
ncolors × 2nreds
independent red entries,
ncolors × 2ngreens
independent green entries, and
ncolors × 2nblues
independent blue entries.
This is true even for
PseudoColor.
When the colormap entry of a pixel
value is changed (using
XStoreColors,
XStoreColor,
or
XStoreNamedColor),
the pixel is decomposed according to the masks,
and the corresponding independent entries are updated.
XAllocColorPlanes
returns nonzero if it succeeded or zero if it failed.

XAllocColorPlanes
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.


To free colormap cells, use
XFreeColors.

XFreeColors(Display *display, Colormap colormap, unsigned long pixels[], int npixels, unsigned long planes);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


pixels

Specifies an array of pixel values that map to the cells in the specified
colormap.


npixels

Specifies the number of pixels.


planes

Specifies the planes you want to free.

The
XFreeColors
function frees the cells represented by pixels whose values are in the
pixels array.
The planes argument should not have any bits set to 1 in common with any of the
pixels.
The set of all pixels is produced by ORing together subsets of
the planes argument with the pixels.
The request frees all of these pixels that
were allocated by the client (using




XAllocColor,
XAllocNamedColor,
XAllocColorCells,
and
XAllocColorPlanes).
Note that freeing an
individual pixel obtained from
XAllocColorPlanes
may not actually allow
it to be reused until all of its related pixels are also freed.
Similarly,
a read-only entry is not actually freed until it has been freed by all clients,
and if a client allocates the same read-only entry multiple times,
it must free the entry that many times before the entry is actually freed.

All specified pixels that are allocated by the client in the colormap are
freed, even if one or more pixels produce an error.
If a specified pixel is not a valid index into the colormap, a
BadValue
error results.
If a specified pixel is not allocated by the
client (that is, is unallocated or is only allocated by another client)
or if the colormap was created with all entries writable (by passing
AllocAll
to
XCreateColormap),
a
BadAccess
error results.
If more than one pixel is in error,
the one that gets reported is arbitrary.

XFreeColors
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
and
BadValue
errors.

Modifying and Querying Colormap Cells

To store an RGB value in a single colormap cell, use
XStoreColor.

XStoreColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XColor *color);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color

Specifies the pixel and RGB values.

The
XStoreColor
function changes the colormap entry of the pixel value specified in the
pixel member of the
XColor
structure.
You specified this value in the
pixel member of the
XColor
structure.
This pixel value must be a read/write cell and a valid index into the colormap.
If a specified pixel is not a valid index into the colormap,
a
BadValue
error results.
XStoreColor
also changes the red, green, and/or blue color components.
You specify which color components are to be changed by setting
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and/or
DoBlue
in the flags member of the
XColor
structure.
If the colormap is an installed map for its screen,
the changes are visible immediately.

XStoreColor
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
and
BadValue
errors.

To store multiple RGB values in multiple colormap cells, use
XStoreColors.

XStoreColors(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XColor color[], int ncolors);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color

Specifies an array of color definition structures to be stored.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XColor
structures in the color definition array.

The
XStoreColors
function changes the colormap entries of the pixel values
specified in the pixel members of the
XColor
structures.
You specify which color components are to be changed by setting
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and/or
DoBlue
in the flags member of the
XColor
structures.
If the colormap is an installed map for its screen, the
changes are visible immediately.
XStoreColors
changes the specified pixels if they are allocated writable in the colormap
by any client, even if one or more pixels generates an error.
If a specified pixel is not a valid index into the colormap, a
BadValue
error results.
If a specified pixel either is unallocated or is allocated read-only, a
BadAccess
error results.
If more than one pixel is in error,
the one that gets reported is arbitrary.

XStoreColors
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
and
BadValue
errors.

To store a color of arbitrary format in a single colormap cell, use
XcmsStoreColor.

Status XcmsStoreColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsColor *color);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color

Specifies the color cell and the color to store.
Values specified in this
XcmsColor
structure remain unchanged on return.

The
XcmsStoreColor
function converts the color specified in the
XcmsColor
structure into RGB values.
It then uses this RGB specification in an
XColor
structure, whose three flags
(DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue)
are set, in a call to
XStoreColor
to change the color cell specified by the pixel member of the
XcmsColor
structure.
This pixel value must be a valid index for the specified colormap,
and the color cell specified by the pixel value must be a read/write cell.
If the pixel value is not a valid index, a
BadValue
error results.
If the color cell is unallocated or is allocated read-only, a
BadAccess
error results.
If the colormap is an installed map for its screen,
the changes are visible immediately.

Note that
XStoreColor
has no return value; therefore, an
XcmsSuccess
return value from this function indicates that the conversion
to RGB succeeded and the call to
XStoreColor
was made.
To obtain the actual color stored, use
XcmsQueryColor.
Because of the screen's hardware limitations or gamut compression,
the color stored in the colormap may not be identical
to the color specified.

XcmsStoreColor
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
and
BadValue
errors.

To store multiple colors of arbitrary format in multiple colormap cells, use
XcmsStoreColors.

Status XcmsStoreColors(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsColor colors[], int ncolors, Bool compression_flags_return[]);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


colors

Specifies the color specification array of
XcmsColor
structures, each specifying a color cell and the color to store in that
cell.
Values specified in the array remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


compression_flags_return

Returns an array of Boolean values indicating compression status.
If a non-NULL pointer is supplied,
each element of the array is set to
True
if the corresponding color was compressed and
False
otherwise.
Pass NULL if the compression status is not useful.

The
XcmsStoreColors
function converts the colors specified in the array of
XcmsColor
structures into RGB values and then uses these RGB specifications in
XColor
structures, whose three flags
(DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue)
are set, in a call to
XStoreColors
to change the color cells specified by the pixel member of the corresponding
XcmsColor
structure.
Each pixel value must be a valid index for the specified colormap,
and the color cell specified by each pixel value must be a read/write cell.
If a pixel value is not a valid index, a
BadValue
error results.
If a color cell is unallocated or is allocated read-only, a
BadAccess
error results.
If more than one pixel is in error,
the one that gets reported is arbitrary.
If the colormap is an installed map for its screen,
the changes are visible immediately.

Note that
XStoreColors
has no return value; therefore, an
XcmsSuccess
return value from this function indicates that conversions
to RGB succeeded and the call to
XStoreColors
was made.
To obtain the actual colors stored, use
XcmsQueryColors.
Because of the screen's hardware limitations or gamut compression,
the colors stored in the colormap may not be identical
to the colors specified.

XcmsStoreColors
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
and
BadValue
errors.

To store a color specified by name in a single colormap cell, use
XStoreNamedColor.

XStoreNamedColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, char *color, unsigned long pixel, int flags);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color

Specifies the color name string (for example, red).


pixel

Specifies the entry in the colormap.


flags

Specifies which red, green, and blue components are set.

The
XStoreNamedColor
function looks up the named color with respect to the screen associated with
the colormap and stores the result in the specified colormap.
The pixel argument determines the entry in the colormap.
The flags argument determines which of the red, green, and blue components
are set.
You can set this member to the
bitwise inclusive OR of the bits
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue.
If the color name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
If the specified pixel is not a valid index into the colormap, a
BadValue
error results.
If the specified pixel either is unallocated or is allocated read-only, a
BadAccess
error results.

XStoreNamedColor
can generate
BadAccess,
BadColor,
BadName,
and
BadValue
errors.

The
XQueryColor
and
XQueryColors
functions take pixel values in the pixel member of
XColor
structures and store in the structures the RGB values for those
pixels from the specified colormap.
The values returned for an unallocated entry are undefined.
These functions also set the flags member in the
XColor
structure to all three colors.
If a pixel is not a valid index into the specified colormap, a
BadValue
error results.
If more than one pixel is in error,
the one that gets reported is arbitrary.

To query the RGB value of a single colormap cell, use
XQueryColor.

XQueryColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XColor *def_in_out);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


def_in_out

Specifies and returns the RGB values for the pixel specified in the structure.

The
XQueryColor
function returns the current RGB value for the pixel in the
XColor
structure and sets the
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue
flags.

XQueryColor
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.

To query the RGB values of multiple colormap cells, use
XQueryColors.

XQueryColors(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XColor defs_in_out[], int ncolors);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


defs_in_out

Specifies and returns an array of color definition structures for the pixel
specified in the structure.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XColor
structures in the color definition array.

The
XQueryColors
function returns the RGB value for each pixel in each
XColor
structure and sets the
DoRed,
DoGreen,
and
DoBlue
flags in each structure.

XQueryColors
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.

To query the color of a single colormap cell in an arbitrary format, use
XcmsQueryColor.

Status XcmsQueryColor(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsColor *color_in_out, XcmsColorFormat result_format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


color_in_out

Specifies the pixel member that indicates the color cell to query.
The color specification stored for the color cell is returned in this
XcmsColor
structure.


result_format

Specifies the color format for the returned color specification.

The
XcmsQueryColor
function obtains the RGB value
for the pixel value in the pixel member of the specified
XcmsColor
structure and then
converts the value to the target format as
specified by the result_format argument.
If the pixel is not a valid index in the specified colormap, a
BadValue
error results.

XcmsQueryColor
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.

To query the color of multiple colormap cells in an arbitrary format, use
XcmsQueryColors.

Status XcmsQueryColors(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsColor colors_in_out[], unsigned int ncolors, XcmsColorFormat result_format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of
XcmsColor
structures, each pixel member indicating the color cell to query.
The color specifications for the color cells are returned in these structures.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


result_format

Specifies the color format for the returned color specification.

The
XcmsQueryColors
function obtains the RGB values
for pixel values in the pixel members of
XcmsColor
structures and then
converts the values to the target format as
specified by the result_format argument.
If a pixel is not a valid index into the specified colormap, a
BadValue
error results.
If more than one pixel is in error,
the one that gets reported is arbitrary.

XcmsQueryColors
can generate
BadColor
and
BadValue
errors.

Color Conversion Context Functions

This section describes functions to create, modify,
and query Color Conversion Contexts (CCCs).

Associated with each colormap is an initial CCC transparently generated by
Xlib.

Therefore, when you specify a colormap as an argument to a function,
you are indirectly specifying a CCC.


The CCC attributes that can be modified by the X client are:

  • Client White Point

  • Gamut compression procedure and client data

  • White point adjustment procedure and client data

The initial values for these attributes are implementation specific.
The CCC attributes for subsequently created CCCs can be defined
by changing the CCC attributes of the default CCC.


There is a default CCC associated with each screen.

Getting and Setting the Color Conversion Context of a Colormap

To obtain the CCC associated with a colormap, use
XcmsCCCOfColormap.

XcmsCCC XcmsCCCOfColormap(Display *display, Colormap colormap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.

The
XcmsCCCOfColormap
function returns the CCC associated with the specified colormap.
Once obtained,
the CCC attributes can be queried or modified.
Unless the CCC associated with the specified colormap is changed with
XcmsSetCCCOfColormap,
this CCC is used when the specified colormap is used as an argument
to color functions.

To change the CCC associated with a colormap, use
XcmsSetCCCOfColormap.

XcmsCCC XcmsSetCCCOfColormap(Display *display, Colormap colormap, XcmsCCC ccc);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


colormap

Specifies the colormap.


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

The
XcmsSetCCCOfColormap
function changes the CCC associated with the specified colormap.
It returns the CCC previously associated with the colormap.
If they are not used again in the application,
CCCs should be freed by calling
XcmsFreeCCC.
Several colormaps may share the same CCC without restriction; this
includes the CCCs generated by Xlib with each colormap. Xlib, however,
creates a new CCC with each new colormap.

Obtaining the Default Color Conversion Context

You can change the default CCC attributes for subsequently created CCCs
by changing the CCC attributes of the default CCC.


A default CCC is associated with each screen.

To obtain the default CCC for a screen, use
XcmsDefaultCCC.

XcmsCCC XcmsDefaultCCC(Display *display, int screen_number);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.

The
XcmsDefaultCCC
function returns the default CCC for the specified screen.
Its visual is the default visual of the screen.
Its initial gamut compression and white point
adjustment procedures as well as the associated client data are implementation
specific.

Color Conversion Context Macros

Applications should not directly modify any part of the
XcmsCCC.
The following lists the C language macros, their corresponding function
equivalents for other language bindings, and what data they both
can return.

DisplayOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);

Display *XcmsDisplayOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

Both return the display associated with the specified CCC.

VisualOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);

Visual *XcmsVisualOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

Both return the visual associated with the specified CCC.

ScreenNumberOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);

int XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

Both return the number of the screen associated with the specified CCC.

ScreenWhitePointOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);

XcmsColor XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

Both return the white point of the screen associated with the specified CCC.

ClientWhitePointOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);

XcmsColor *XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

Both return the Client White Point of the specified CCC.

Modifying Attributes of a Color Conversion Context

To set the Client White Point in the CCC, use
XcmsSetWhitePoint.

Status XcmsSetWhitePoint(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor *color);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


color

Specifies the new Client White Point.

The
XcmsSetWhitePoint
function changes the Client White Point in the specified CCC.
Note that the pixel member is ignored
and that the color specification is left unchanged upon return.
The format for the new white point must be
XcmsCIEXYZFormat,
XcmsCIEuvYFormat,
XcmsCIExyYFormat,
or
XcmsUndefinedFormat.
If the color argument is NULL, this function sets the format component of the
Client White Point specification to
XcmsUndefinedFormat,
indicating that the Client White Point is assumed to be the same as the
Screen White Point.

This function returns nonzero status
if the format for the new white point is valid;
otherwise, it returns zero.

To set the gamut compression procedure and corresponding client data
in a specified CCC, use
XcmsSetCompressionProc.

XcmsCompressionProc XcmsSetCompressionProc(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsCompressionProc compression_proc, XPointer client_data);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


compression_proc

Specifies the gamut compression procedure that is to be applied
when a color lies outside the screen's color gamut.
If NULL is specified and a function using this CCC must convert
a color specification to a device-dependent format and encounters a color
that lies outside the screen's color gamut,
that function will return
XcmsFailure.


client_data

Specifies client data for gamut compression procedure or NULL.

The
XcmsSetCompressionProc
function first sets the gamut compression procedure and client data
in the specified CCC with the newly specified procedure and client data
and then returns the old procedure.

To set the white point adjustment procedure and corresponding client data
in a specified CCC, use
XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc.

XcmsWhiteAdjustProc XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsWhiteAdjustProc white_adjust_proc, XPointer client_data);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


white_adjust_proc

Specifies the white point adjustment procedure.


client_data

Specifies client data for white point adjustment procedure or NULL.

The
XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc
function first sets the white point adjustment procedure and client data
in the specified CCC with the newly specified procedure and client data
and then returns the old procedure.

Creating and Freeing a Color Conversion Context

You can explicitly create a CCC within your application by calling
XcmsCreateCCC.
These created CCCs can then be used by those functions that explicitly
call for a CCC argument.
Old CCCs that will not be used by the application should be freed using
XcmsFreeCCC.

To create a CCC, use
XcmsCreateCCC.

XcmsCCC XcmsCreateCCC(Display *display, int screen_number, Visual *visual, XcmsColor *client_white_point, XcmsCompressionProc compression_proc, XPointer compression_client_data, XcmsWhiteAdjustProc white_adjust_proc, XPointer white_adjust_client_data);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.


visual

Specifies the visual type.


client_white_point

Specifies the Client White Point.
If NULL is specified,
the Client White Point is to be assumed to be the same as the
Screen White Point.
Note that the pixel member is ignored.


compression_proc

Specifies the gamut compression procedure that is to be applied
when a color lies outside the screen's color gamut.
If NULL is specified and a function using this CCC must convert
a color specification to a device-dependent format and encounters a color
that lies outside the screen's color gamut,
that function will return
XcmsFailure.


compression_client_data

Specifies client data for use by the gamut compression procedure or NULL.


white_adjust_proc

Specifies the white adjustment procedure that is to be applied
when the Client White Point differs from the Screen White Point.
NULL indicates that no white point adjustment is desired.


white_adjust_client_data

Specifies client data for use with the white point adjustment procedure or NULL.

The
XcmsCreateCCC
function creates a CCC for the specified display, screen, and visual.

To free a CCC, use
XcmsFreeCCC.

void XcmsFreeCCC(XcmsCCC ccc);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.

The
XcmsFreeCCC
function frees the memory used for the specified CCC.
Note that default CCCs and those currently associated with colormaps
are ignored.

Converting between Color Spaces

To convert an array of color specifications in arbitrary color formats
to a single destination format, use
XcmsConvertColors.

Status XcmsConvertColors(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor colors_in_out[], unsigned int ncolors, XcmsColorFormat target_format, Bool compression_flags_return[]);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
If conversion is between device-independent color spaces only
(for example, TekHVC to CIELuv),
the CCC is necessary only to specify the Client White Point.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of color specifications.
Pixel members are ignored and remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


compression_flags_return

Returns an array of Boolean values indicating compression status.
If a non-NULL pointer is supplied,
each element of the array is set to
True
if the corresponding color was compressed and
False
otherwise.
Pass NULL if the compression status is not useful.

The
XcmsConvertColors
function converts the color specifications in the specified array of
XcmsColor
structures from their current format to a single target format,
using the specified CCC.
When the return value is
XcmsFailure,
the contents of the color specification array are left unchanged.

The array may contain a mixture of color specification formats
(for example, 3 CIE XYZ, 2 CIE Luv, and so on).
When the array contains both device-independent and
device-dependent color specifications and the target_format argument specifies
a device-dependent format (for example,
XcmsRGBiFormat,
XcmsRGBFormat),
all specifications are converted to CIE XYZ format and then to the target
device-dependent format.

Callback Functions

This section describes the gamut compression and white point
adjustment callbacks.

The gamut compression procedure specified in the CCC
is called when an attempt to convert a color specification from
XcmsCIEXYZ
to a device-dependent format (typically
XcmsRGBi)
results in a color that lies outside the screen's color gamut.
If the gamut compression procedure requires client data, this data is passed
via the gamut compression client data in the CCC.

During color specification conversion between device-independent
and device-dependent color spaces,
if a white point adjustment procedure is specified in the CCC,
it is triggered when the Client White Point and Screen White Point differ.
If required, the client data is obtained from the CCC.

Prototype Gamut Compression Procedure

The gamut compression callback interface must adhere to the
following:

typedef Status(*XcmsCompressionProc)(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor colors_in_out[], unsigned int ncolors, unsigned int index, Bool compression_flags_return[]);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of color specifications.
Pixel members should be ignored and must remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


index

Specifies the index into the array of
XcmsColor
structures for the encountered color specification that lies outside the
screen's color gamut.
Valid values are 0 (for the first element) to ncolors - 1.


compression_flags_return

Returns an array of Boolean values for indicating compression status.
If a non-NULL pointer is supplied
and a color at a given index is compressed, then
True
should be stored at the corresponding index in this array;
otherwise, the array should not be modified.

When implementing a gamut compression procedure, consider the following
rules and assumptions:

  • The gamut compression procedure can attempt to compress one or multiple
    specifications at a time.

  • When called, elements 0 to index - 1 in the color specification
    array can be assumed to fall within the screen's color gamut.
    In addition, these color specifications are already in some device-dependent
    format (typically
    XcmsRGBi).
    If any modifications are made to these color specifications,
    they must be in their initial device-dependent format upon return.

  • When called, the element in the color specification array specified
    by the index argument contains the color specification outside the
    screen's color gamut encountered by the calling routine.
    In addition, this color specification can be assumed to be in
    XcmsCIEXYZ.
    Upon return, this color specification must be in
    XcmsCIEXYZ.

  • When called, elements from index to ncolors - 1
    in the color specification array may or may not fall within the
    screen's color gamut.
    In addition, these color specifications can be assumed to be in
    XcmsCIEXYZ.
    If any modifications are made to these color specifications,
    they must be in
    XcmsCIEXYZ
    upon return.

  • The color specifications passed to the gamut compression procedure
    have already been adjusted to the Screen White Point.
    This means that at this point the color specification's white point
    is the Screen White Point.

  • If the gamut compression procedure uses a device-independent color space not
    initially accessible for use in the color management system, use
    XcmsAddColorSpace
    to ensure that it is added.

Supplied Gamut Compression Procedures

The following equations are useful in describing gamut compression
functions:

delim %%

%CIELab~Psychometric~Chroma ~=~ sqrt(a_star sup 2 ~+~ b_star sup 2 )%

%CIELab~Psychometric~Hue ~=~ tan sup -1 left [ b_star over a_star right ]%

%CIELuv~Psychometric~Chroma ~=~ sqrt(u_star sup 2 ~+~ v_star sup 2 )%

%CIELuv~Psychometric~Hue ~=~ tan sup -1 left [ v_star over u_star right ]%

The gamut compression callback procedures provided by Xlib are as follows:

  • XcmsCIELabClipL

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing or increasing CIE metric lightness (L*)
    in the CIE L*a*b* color space until the color is within the gamut.
    If the Psychometric Chroma of the color specification
    is beyond maximum for the Psychometric Hue Angle,
    then while maintaining the same Psychometric Hue Angle,
    the color will be clipped to the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum
    Psychometric Chroma.
    See
    XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELabClipab

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing Psychometric Chroma,
    while maintaining Psychometric Hue Angle,
    until the color is within the gamut.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELabClipLab

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by replacing it with CIE L*a*b* coordinates
    that fall within the color gamut while maintaining the original
    Psychometric Hue
    Angle and whose vector to the original coordinates is the shortest attainable.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELuvClipL

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing or increasing CIE metric lightness (L*)
    in the CIE L*u*v* color space until the color is within the gamut.
    If the Psychometric Chroma of the color specification
    is beyond maximum for the Psychometric Hue Angle,
    then, while maintaining the same Psychometric Hue Angle,
    the color will be clipped to the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum
    Psychometric Chroma.
    See
    XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELuvClipuv

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing
    Psychometric Chroma, while maintaining Psychometric Hue Angle,
    until the color is within the gamut.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELuvClipLuv

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by replacing it with CIE L*u*v* coordinates
    that fall within the color gamut while maintaining the original
    Psychometric Hue
    Angle and whose vector to the original coordinates is the shortest attainable.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsTekHVCClipV

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing or increasing the Value dimension
    in the TekHVC color space until the color is within the gamut.
    If Chroma of the color specification is beyond maximum for the particular Hue,
    then, while maintaining the same Hue,
    the color will be clipped to the Value and Chroma coordinates
    that represent maximum Chroma for that particular Hue.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsTekHVCClipC

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by reducing the Chroma dimension
    in the TekHVC color space until the color is within the gamut.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsTekHVCClipVC

  • This brings the encountered out-of-gamut color specification into the
    screen's color gamut by replacing it with TekHVC coordinates
    that fall within the color gamut while maintaining the original Hue
    and whose vector to the original coordinates is the shortest attainable.
    No client data is necessary.

Prototype White Point Adjustment Procedure

The white point adjustment procedure interface must adhere to the following:

typedef Status (*XcmsWhiteAdjustProc)(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor *initial_white_point, XcmsColor *target_white_point, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor colors_in_out[], unsigned int ncolors, Bool compression_flags_return[]);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


initial_white_point

Specifies the initial white point.


target_white_point

Specifies the target white point.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of color specifications.
Pixel members should be ignored and must remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


compression_flags_return

Returns an array of Boolean values for indicating compression status.
If a non-NULL pointer is supplied
and a color at a given index is compressed, then
True
should be stored at the corresponding index in this array;
otherwise, the array should not be modified.

Supplied White Point Adjustment Procedures

White point adjustment procedures provided by Xlib are as follows:

  • XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors

  • This uses the CIE L*a*b* color space for adjusting the chromatic character
    of colors to compensate for the chromatic differences between the source
    and destination white points.
    This procedure simply converts the color specifications to
    XcmsCIELab
    using the source white point and then converts to the target specification
    format using the destination's white point.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors

  • This uses the CIE L*u*v* color space for adjusting the chromatic character
    of colors to compensate for the chromatic differences between the source
    and destination white points.
    This procedure simply converts the color specifications to
    XcmsCIELuv
    using the source white point and then converts to the target specification
    format using the destination's white point.
    No client data is necessary.

  • XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors

  • This uses the TekHVC color space for adjusting the chromatic character
    of colors to compensate for the chromatic differences between the source
    and destination white points.
    This procedure simply converts the color specifications to
    XcmsTekHVC
    using the source white point and then converts to the target specification
    format using the destination's white point.
    An advantage of this procedure over those previously described
    is an attempt to minimize hue shift.
    No client data is necessary.

From an implementation point of view,
these white point adjustment procedures convert the color specifications
to a device-independent but white-point-dependent color space
(for example, CIE L*u*v*, CIE L*a*b*, TekHVC) using one white point
and then converting those specifications to the target color space
using another white point.
In other words,
the specification goes in the color space with one white point
but comes out with another white point,
resulting in a chromatic shift based on the chromatic displacement
between the initial white point and target white point.
The CIE color spaces that are assumed to be white-point-independent
are CIE u'v'Y, CIE XYZ, and CIE xyY.
When developing a custom white point adjustment procedure that uses a
device-independent color space not initially accessible for use in the
color management system, use
XcmsAddColorSpace
to ensure that it is added.

As an example,
if the CCC specifies a white point adjustment procedure
and if the Client White Point and Screen White Point differ, the
XcmsAllocColor
function will use the white point adjustment
procedure twice:

  • Once to convert to
    XcmsRGB

  • A second time to convert from
    XcmsRGB

For example, assume the specification is in
XcmsCIEuvY
and the adjustment procedure is
XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors.
During conversion to
XcmsRGB,
the call to
XcmsAllocColor
results in the following series of color specification conversions:

  • From
    XcmsCIEuvY
    to
    XcmsCIELuv
    using the Client White Point

  • From
    XcmsCIELuv
    to
    XcmsCIEuvY
    using the Screen White Point

  • From
    XcmsCIEuvY
    to
    XcmsCIEXYZ
    (CIE u'v'Y and XYZ are white-point-independent color spaces)

  • From
    XcmsCIEXYZ
    to
    XcmsRGBi

  • From
    XcmsRGBi
    to
    XcmsRGB

The resulting RGB specification is passed to
XAllocColor,
and the RGB
specification returned by
XAllocColor
is converted back to
XcmsCIEuvY
by reversing the color conversion sequence.

Gamut Querying Functions

This section describes the gamut querying functions that Xlib provides.
These functions allow the client to query the boundary
of the screen's color gamut in terms of the CIE L*a*b*, CIE L*u*v*,
and TekHVC color spaces.

Functions are also provided that allow you to query
the color specification of:

  • White (full-intensity red, green, and blue)

  • Red (full-intensity red while green and blue are zero)

  • Green (full-intensity green while red and blue are zero)

  • Blue (full-intensity blue while red and green are zero)

  • Black (zero-intensity red, green, and blue)

The white point associated with color specifications passed to
and returned from these gamut querying
functions is assumed to be the Screen White Point.

This is a reasonable assumption,
because the client is trying to query the screen's color gamut.

The following naming convention is used for the Max and Min functions:

Xcms<color_space>QueryMax<dimensions>

Xcms<color_space>QueryMin<dimensions>

The <dimensions> consists of a letter or letters
that identify the dimensions of the color space
that are not fixed.
For example,
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC
is given a fixed Hue and Value for which maximum Chroma is found.

Red, Green, and Blue Queries

To obtain the color specification for black
(zero-intensity red, green, and blue), use
XcmsQueryBlack.

Status XcmsQueryBlack(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the specified target format
for zero-intensity red, green, and blue.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsQueryBlack
function returns the color specification in the specified target format
for zero-intensity red, green, and blue.

To obtain the color specification for blue
(full-intensity blue while red and green are zero), use
XcmsQueryBlue.

Status XcmsQueryBlue(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity blue while red and green are zero.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsQueryBlue
function returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity blue while red and green are zero.

To obtain the color specification for green
(full-intensity green while red and blue are zero), use
XcmsQueryGreen.

Status XcmsQueryGreen(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity green while red and blue are zero.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsQueryGreen
function returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity green while red and blue are zero.

To obtain the color specification for red
(full-intensity red while green and blue are zero), use
XcmsQueryRed.

Status XcmsQueryRed(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity red while green and blue are zero.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsQueryRed
function returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity red while green and blue are zero.

To obtain the color specification for white
(full-intensity red, green, and blue), use
XcmsQueryWhite.

Status XcmsQueryWhite(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColorFormat target_format, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


target_format

Specifies the target color specification format.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity red, green, and blue.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsQueryWhite
function returns the color specification in the specified target format
for full-intensity red, green, and blue.

CIELab Queries

The following equations are useful in describing the CIELab query functions:

delim %%




%CIELab~Psychometric~Chroma ~=~ sqrt(a_star sup 2 ~+~ b_star sup 2 )%

%CIELab~Psychometric~Hue ~=~ tan sup -1 left [ b_star over a_star right ]%

To obtain the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum Psychometric Chroma
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and CIE metric lightness (L*), use
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC.

Status XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat L_star, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum chroma.


L_star

Specifies the lightness (L*) at which to find maximum chroma.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum chroma
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and lightness.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC
function, given a hue angle and lightness,
finds the point of maximum chroma displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*a*b* coordinates.

To obtain the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum CIE metric lightness (L*)
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and Psychometric Chroma, use
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL.

Status XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum lightness.


chroma

Specifies the chroma at which to find maximum lightness.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum lightness
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and chroma.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL
function, given a hue angle and chroma,
finds the point in CIE L*a*b* color space of maximum
lightness (L*) displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*a*b* coordinates.
An
XcmsFailure
return value usually indicates that the given chroma
is beyond maximum for the given hue angle.

To obtain the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum Psychometric Chroma
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle, use
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC.

Status XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum chroma.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of maximum chroma
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC
function, given a hue angle,
finds the point of maximum chroma displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*a*b* coordinates.

To obtain the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of minimum CIE metric lightness (L*)
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and Psychometric Chroma, use
XcmsCIELabQueryMinL.

Status XcmsCIELabQueryMinL(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find minimum lightness.


chroma

Specifies the chroma at which to find minimum lightness.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*a*b* coordinates of minimum lightness
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and chroma.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELabQueryMinL
function, given a hue angle and chroma,
finds the point of minimum lightness (L*) displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*a*b* coordinates.
An
XcmsFailure
return value usually indicates that the given chroma
is beyond maximum for the given hue angle.

CIELuv Queries

The following equations are useful in describing the CIELuv query functions:

delim %%




%CIELuv~Psychometric~Chroma ~=~ sqrt(u_star sup 2 ~+~ v_star sup 2 )%

%CIELuv~Psychometric~Hue ~=~ tan sup -1 left [ v_star over u_star right ]%

To obtain the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum Psychometric Chroma
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and CIE metric lightness (L*), use
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC.

Status XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat L_star, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum chroma.


L_star

Specifies the lightness (L*) at which to find maximum chroma.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum chroma
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and lightness.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC
function, given a hue angle and lightness,
finds the point of maximum chroma displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*u*v* coordinates.

To obtain the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum CIE metric lightness (L*)
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and Psychometric Chroma, use
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL.

Status XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum lightness.


L_star

Specifies the lightness (L*) at which to find maximum lightness.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum lightness
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and chroma.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL
function, given a hue angle and chroma,
finds the point in CIE L*u*v* color space of maximum
lightness (L*) displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*u*v* coordinates.
An
XcmsFailure
return value usually indicates that the given chroma
is beyond maximum for the given hue angle.

To obtain the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum Psychometric Chroma
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle, use
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC.

Status XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find maximum chroma.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of maximum chroma
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC
function, given a hue angle,
finds the point of maximum chroma displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*u*v* coordinates.

To obtain the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of minimum CIE metric lightness (L*)
for a given Psychometric Hue Angle and Psychometric Chroma, use
XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL.

Status XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue_angle, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue_angle

Specifies the hue angle (in degrees) at which to find minimum lightness.


chroma

Specifies the chroma at which to find minimum lightness.


color_return

Returns the CIE L*u*v* coordinates of minimum lightness
displayable by the screen for the given hue angle and chroma.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL
function, given a hue angle and chroma,
finds the point of minimum lightness (L*) displayable by the screen.
It returns this point in CIE L*u*v* coordinates.
An
XcmsFailure
return value usually indicates that the given chroma
is beyond maximum for the given hue angle.

TekHVC Queries

To obtain the maximum Chroma for a given Hue and Value, use
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC.

Status XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue, XcmsFloat value, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue

Specifies the Hue in which to find the maximum Chroma.


value

Specifies the Value in which to find the maximum Chroma.


color_return

Returns the maximum Chroma along with the actual Hue and Value at which
the maximum Chroma was found.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC
function, given a Hue and Value,
determines the maximum Chroma in TekHVC color space
displayable by the screen.
It returns the maximum Chroma along with the actual Hue
and Value at which the maximum Chroma was found.

To obtain the maximum Value for a given Hue and Chroma, use
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV.

Status XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue

Specifies the Hue in which to find the maximum Value.


chroma

Specifies the chroma at which to find maximum Value.


color_return

Returns the maximum Value along with the Hue and Chroma at which the
maximum Value
was found.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV
function, given a Hue and Chroma,
determines the maximum Value in TekHVC color space
displayable by the screen.
It returns the maximum Value and the actual Hue and Chroma
at which the maximum Value was found.

To obtain the maximum Chroma and Value at which it is reached
for a specified Hue, use
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC.

Status XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue

Specifies the Hue in which to find the maximum Chroma.


color_return

Returns the color specification in XcmsTekHVC for the maximum Chroma, the
Value at which that maximum Chroma is reached, and the actual Hue at which
the maximum Chroma was found.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC
function, given a Hue,
determines the maximum Chroma in TekHVC color space displayable by the screen
and the Value at which that maximum Chroma is reached.
It returns the maximum Chroma,
the Value at which that maximum Chroma is reached,
and the actual Hue for which the maximum Chroma was found.

To obtain a specified number of TekHVC specifications such that they
contain maximum Values for a specified Hue and the
Chroma at which the maximum Values are reached, use
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples.

Status XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue, XcmsColor colors_return[], unsigned int nsamples);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue

Specifies the Hue for maximum Chroma/Value samples.


nsamples

Specifies the number of samples.


colors_return

Returns nsamples of color specifications in XcmsTekHVC
such that the Chroma is the maximum attainable for the Value and Hue.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples
returns nsamples of maximum Value, the Chroma at which that maximum Value
is reached, and the actual Hue for which the maximum Chroma was found.
These sample points may then be used to plot the maximum Value/Chroma
boundary of the screen's color gamut for the specified Hue in TekHVC color
space.

To obtain the minimum Value for a given Hue and Chroma, use
XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV.

Status XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsFloat hue, XcmsFloat chroma, XcmsColor *color_return);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.
The CCC's Client White Point and white point adjustment procedures
are ignored.


hue

Specifies the Hue in which to find the minimum Value.


value

Specifies the Value in which to find the minimum Value.


color_return

Returns the minimum Value and the actual Hue and Chroma at which the
minimum Value
was found.
The white point associated with the returned
color specification is the Screen White Point.
The value returned in the pixel member is undefined.

The
XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV
function, given a Hue and Chroma,
determines the minimum Value in TekHVC color space displayable by the screen.
It returns the minimum Value and the actual Hue and Chroma at which
the minimum Value was found.

Color Management Extensions

The Xlib color management facilities can be extended in two ways:

  • Device-Independent Color Spaces

  • Device-independent color spaces that are derivable to CIE XYZ
    space can be added using the
    XcmsAddColorSpace
    function.

  • Color Characterization Function Set

  • A Color Characterization Function Set consists of
    device-dependent color spaces and their functions that
    convert between these color spaces and the CIE XYZ
    color space, bundled together for a specific class of output devices.
    A function set can be added using the
    XcmsAddFunctionSet
    function.

Color Spaces

The CIE XYZ color space serves as the hub for all
conversions between device-independent and device-dependent color spaces.
Therefore, the knowledge to convert an
XcmsColor
structure to and from CIE XYZ format is associated with each color space.
For example, conversion from CIE L*u*v* to RGB requires the knowledge
to convert from CIE L*u*v* to CIE XYZ and from CIE XYZ to RGB.
This knowledge is stored as an array of functions that,
when applied in series, will convert the
XcmsColor
structure to or from CIE XYZ format.
This color specification conversion mechanism facilitates
the addition of color spaces.

Of course, when converting between only device-independent color spaces
or only device-dependent color spaces,
shortcuts are taken whenever possible.
For example, conversion from TekHVC to CIE L*u*v* is performed
by intermediate conversion to CIE u*v*Y and then to CIE L*u*v*,
thus bypassing conversion between CIE u*v*Y and CIE XYZ.

Adding Device-Independent Color Spaces

To add a device-independent color space, use
XcmsAddColorSpace.

Status XcmsAddColorSpace(XcmsColorSpace *color_space);


color_space

Specifies the device-independent color space to add.

The
XcmsAddColorSpace
function makes a device-independent color space (actually an
XcmsColorSpace
structure) accessible by the color management system.
Because format values for unregistered color spaces are assigned at run time,
they should be treated as private to the client.
If references to an unregistered color space must be made
outside the client (for example, storing color specifications
in a file using the unregistered color space),
then reference should be made by color space prefix
(see
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
and
XcmsPrefixOfFormat).

If the
XcmsColorSpace
structure is already accessible in the color management system,
XcmsAddColorSpace
returns
XcmsSuccess.

Note that added
XcmsColorSpaces
must be retained for reference by Xlib.

Querying Color Space Format and Prefix

To obtain the format associated with the color space
associated with a specified color string prefix, use
XcmsFormatOfPrefix.

XcmsColorFormat XcmsFormatOfPrefix(char *prefix);


prefix

Specifies the string that contains the color space prefix.

The
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
function returns the format for the specified color space prefix
(for example, the string “CIEXYZ”).
The prefix is case-insensitive.
If the color space is not accessible in the color management system,
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
returns
XcmsUndefinedFormat.

To obtain the color string prefix associated with the color space
specified by a color format, use
XcmsPrefixOfFormat.

char *XcmsPrefixOfFormat(XcmsColorFormat format);


format

Specifies the color specification format.

The
XcmsPrefixOfFormat
function returns the string prefix associated with the color specification
encoding specified by the format argument.
Otherwise, if no encoding is found, it returns NULL.
The returned string must be treated as read-only.

Creating Additional Color Spaces

Color space specific information necessary
for color space conversion and color string parsing is stored in an
XcmsColorSpace
structure.
Therefore, a new structure containing this information is required
for each additional color space.
In the case of device-independent color spaces,
a handle to this new structure (that is, by means of a global variable)
is usually made accessible to the client program for use with the
XcmsAddColorSpace
function.

If a new
XcmsColorSpace
structure specifies a color space not registered with the X Consortium,
they should be treated as private to the client
because format values for unregistered color spaces are assigned at run time.
If references to an unregistered color space must be made outside the
client (for example, storing color specifications in a file using the
unregistered color space), then reference should be made by color space prefix
(see
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
and
XcmsPrefixOfFormat).


typedef (*XcmsConversionProc)();
typedef XcmsConversionProc *XcmsFuncListPtr;
		/* A NULL terminated list of function pointers*/

typedef struct _XcmsColorSpace {
	char *prefix;
	XcmsColorFormat format;
	XcmsParseStringProc parseString;
	XcmsFuncListPtr to_CIEXYZ;
	XcmsFuncListPtr from_CIEXYZ;
	int inverse_flag;
} XcmsColorSpace;

The prefix member specifies the prefix that indicates a color string
is in this color space's string format.
For example, the strings “ciexyz” or “CIEXYZ” for CIE XYZ,
and “rgb” or “RGB” for RGB.
The prefix is case insensitive.
The format member specifies the color specification format.
Formats for unregistered color spaces are assigned at run time.
The parseString member contains a pointer to the function
that can parse a color string into an
XcmsColor
structure.
This function returns an integer (int): nonzero if it succeeded
and zero otherwise.
The to_CIEXYZ and from_CIEXYZ members contain pointers,
each to a NULL terminated list of function pointers.
When the list of functions is executed in series,
it will convert the color specified in an
XcmsColor
structure from/to the current color space format to/from the CIE XYZ format.
Each function returns an integer (int): nonzero if it succeeded
and zero otherwise.
The white point to be associated with the colors is specified
explicitly, even though white points can be found in the CCC.
The inverse_flag member, if nonzero, specifies that for each function listed
in to_CIEXYZ,
its inverse function can be found in from_CIEXYZ such that:

Given:  n = number of functions in each list

for each i, such that 0 <= i < n
    from_CIEXYZ[n - i - 1] is the inverse of to_CIEXYZ[i].

This allows Xlib to use the shortest conversion path,
thus bypassing CIE XYZ if possible (for example, TekHVC to CIE L*u*v*).

Parse String Callback

The callback in the
XcmsColorSpace
structure for parsing a color string for the particular color space must
adhere to the following software interface specification:

Status XcmsParseStringProc(char *color_string, XcmsColor *color_return);


color_string

Specifies the color string to parse.


color_return

Returns the color specification in the color space's format.

Color Specification Conversion Callback

Callback functions in the
XcmsColorSpace
structure for converting a color specification between device-independent
spaces must adhere to the
following software interface specification:

Status ConversionProc(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor *white_point, XcmsColor *colors_in_out, unsigned int ncolors);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


white_point

Specifies the white point associated with color specifications.
The pixel member should be ignored,
and the entire structure remain unchanged upon return.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of color specifications.
Pixel members should be ignored and must remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.

Callback functions in the
XcmsColorSpace
structure for converting a color specification to or from a device-dependent
space must adhere to the
following software interface specification:

Status ConversionProc(XcmsCCC ccc, XcmsColor *colors_in_out, unsigned int ncolors, Bool compression_flags_return[]);


ccc

Specifies the CCC.


colors_in_out

Specifies an array of color specifications.
Pixel members should be ignored and must remain unchanged upon return.


ncolors

Specifies the number of
XcmsColor
structures in the color-specification array.


compression_flags_return

Returns an array of Boolean values for indicating compression status.
If a non-NULL pointer is supplied
and a color at a given index is compressed, then
True
should be stored at the corresponding index in this array;
otherwise, the array should not be modified.

Conversion functions are available globally for use by other color
spaces.
The conversion functions provided by Xlib are:

Function Converts from Converts to
XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ XcmsCIELabFormat XcmsCIEXYZFormat
XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY XcmsCIELuvFormat XcmsCIEuvYFormat
XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab XcmsCIEXYZFormat XcmsCIELabFormat
XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY XcmsCIEXYZFormat XcmsCIEuvYFormat
XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY XcmsCIEXYZFormat XcmsCIExyYFormat
XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi XcmsCIEXYZFormat XcmsRGBiFormat
XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv XcmsCIEuvYFormat XcmsCIELabFormat
XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ XcmsCIEuvYFormat XcmsCIEXYZFormat
XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC XcmsCIEuvYFormat XcmsTekHVCFormat
XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ XcmsCIExyYFormat XcmsCIEXYZFormat
XcmsRGBToRGBi XcmsRGBFormat XcmsRGBiFormat
XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ XcmsRGBiFormat XcmsCIEXYZFormat
XcmsRGBiToRGB XcmsRGBiFormat XcmsRGBFormat
XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY XcmsTekHVCFormat XcmsCIEuvYFormat

Function Sets

Functions to convert between device-dependent color spaces
and CIE XYZ may differ for different classes of output devices
(for example, color versus gray monitors).
Therefore, the notion of a Color Characterization Function Set
has been developed.
A function set consists of device-dependent color spaces
and the functions that convert color specifications
between these device-dependent color spaces and the CIE XYZ color space
appropriate for a particular class of output devices.
The function set also contains a function that reads
color characterization data off root window properties.
It is this characterization data that will differ between devices within
a class of output devices.

For details about how color characterization data is
stored in root window properties,
see the
section on Device Color Characterization in the
Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual
.
The LINEAR_RGB function set is provided by Xlib
and will support most color monitors.
Function sets may require data that differs
from those needed for the LINEAR_RGB function set.
In that case,
its corresponding data may be stored on different root window properties.

Adding Function Sets

To add a function set, use
XcmsAddFunctionSet.

Status XcmsAddFunctionSet(XcmsFunctionSet *function_set);


function_set

Specifies the function set to add.

The
XcmsAddFunctionSet
function adds a function set to the color management system.
If the function set uses device-dependent
XcmsColorSpace
structures not accessible in the color management system,
XcmsAddFunctionSet
adds them.
If an added
XcmsColorSpace
structure is for a device-dependent color space not registered
with the X Consortium,
they should be treated as private to the client
because format values for unregistered color spaces are assigned at run time.
If references to an unregistered color space must be made outside the
client (for example, storing color specifications in a file
using the unregistered color space),
then reference should be made by color space prefix
(see
XcmsFormatOfPrefix
and
XcmsPrefixOfFormat).

Additional function sets should be added before any calls to other
Xlib routines are made.
If not, the
XcmsPerScrnInfo
member of a previously created
XcmsCCC
does not have the opportunity to initialize
with the added function set.

Creating Additional Function Sets

The creation of additional function sets should be
required only when an output device does not conform to existing
function sets or when additional device-dependent color spaces are necessary.
A function set consists primarily of a collection of device-dependent
XcmsColorSpace
structures and a means to read and store a
screen's color characterization data.
This data is stored in an
XcmsFunctionSet
structure.
A handle to this structure (that is, by means of global variable)
is usually made accessible to the client program for use with
XcmsAddFunctionSet.

If a function set uses new device-dependent
XcmsColorSpace
structures,
they will be transparently processed into the color management system.
Function sets can share an
XcmsColorSpace
structure for a device-dependent color space.
In addition, multiple
XcmsColorSpace
structures are allowed for a device-dependent color space;
however, a function set can reference only one of them.
These
XcmsColorSpace
structures will differ in the functions to convert to and from CIE XYZ,
thus tailored for the specific function set.


typedef struct _XcmsFunctionSet {
	XcmsColorSpace **DDColorSpaces;
	XcmsScreenInitProc screenInitProc;
	XcmsScreenFreeProc screenFreeProc;
} XcmsFunctionSet;

The DDColorSpaces member is a pointer to a NULL terminated list
of pointers to
XcmsColorSpace
structures for the device-dependent color spaces that are supported
by the function set.
The screenInitProc member is set to the callback procedure (see the following
interface specification) that initializes the
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure for a particular screen.

The screen initialization callback must adhere to the following software
interface specification:

typedef Status (*XcmsScreenInitProc)(Display *display, int screen_number, ScmsPerScrnInfo *screen_info);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


screen_number

Specifies the appropriate screen number on the host server.


screen_info

Specifies the
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure, which contains the per screen information.

The screen initialization callback in the
XcmsFunctionSet
structure fetches the color characterization data (device profile) for
the specified screen,
typically off properties on the
screen's root window.
It then initializes the specified
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure.


If successful, the procedure fills in the
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure as follows:

  • It sets the screenData member to the address
    of the created device profile data structure
    (contents known only by the function set).

  • It next sets the screenWhitePoint member.

  • It next sets the functionSet member to the address of the
    XcmsFunctionSet
    structure.

  • It then sets the state member to
    XcmsInitSuccess
    and finally returns
    XcmsSuccess.

If unsuccessful, the procedure sets the state member to
XcmsInitFailure
and returns
XcmsFailure.

The
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure contains:


typedef struct _XcmsPerScrnInfo {
	XcmsColor screenWhitePoint;
	XPointer functionSet;
	XPointer screenData;
	unsigned char state;
	char pad[3];
} XcmsPerScrnInfo;

The screenWhitePoint member specifies the white point inherent to
the screen.
The functionSet member specifies the appropriate function set.
The screenData member specifies the device profile.
The state member is set to one of the following:

  • XcmsInitNone
    indicates initialization has not been previously attempted.

  • XcmsInitFailure
    indicates initialization has been previously attempted but failed.

  • XcmsInitSuccess
    indicates initialization has been previously attempted and succeeded.

The screen free callback must adhere to the following software
interface specification:

typedef void (*XcmsScreenFreeProc)(XPointer screenData);


screenData

Specifies the data to be freed.

This function is called to free the screenData stored in an
XcmsPerScrnInfo
structure.

Chapter 7. Graphics Context Functions

Table of Contents

Manipulating Graphics Context/StateUsing Graphics Context Convenience RoutinesSetting the Foreground, Background, Function, or Plane MaskSetting the Line Attributes and DashesSetting the Fill Style and Fill RuleSetting the Fill Tile and StippleSetting the Current FontSetting the Clip RegionSetting the Arc Mode, Subwindow Mode, and Graphics Exposure

A number of resources are used when performing graphics operations in X. Most information
about performing graphics (for example, foreground color, background color, line style, and so
on) is stored in resources called graphics contexts (GCs). Most graphics operations (see chapter
8) take a GC as an argument. Although in theory the X protocol permits sharing of GCs between
applications, it is expected that applications will use their own GCs when performing operations.
Sharing of GCs is highly discouraged because the library may cache GC state.

Graphics operations can be performed to either windows or pixmaps, which collectively are
called drawables. Each drawable exists on a single screen. A GC is created for a specific screen
and drawable depth and can only be used with drawables of matching screen and depth.

This chapter discusses how to:

  • Manipulate graphics context/state

  • Use graphics context convenience functions

Manipulating Graphics Context/State

Most attributes of graphics operations are stored in GCs.
These include line width, line style, plane mask, foreground, background,
tile, stipple, clipping region, end style, join style, and so on.
Graphics operations (for example, drawing lines) use these values
to determine the actual drawing operation.
Extensions to X may add additional components to GCs.
The contents of a GC are private to Xlib.

Xlib implements a write-back cache for all elements of a GC that are not
resource IDs to allow Xlib to implement the transparent coalescing of changes
to GCs.
For example,
a call to
XSetForeground
of a GC followed by a call to
XSetLineAttributes
results in only a single-change GC protocol request to the server.
GCs are neither expected nor encouraged to be shared between client
applications, so this write-back caching should present no problems.
Applications cannot share GCs without external synchronization.
Therefore,
sharing GCs between applications is highly discouraged.

To set an attribute of a GC,
set the appropriate member of the
XGCValues
structure and OR in the corresponding value bitmask in your subsequent calls to
XCreateGC.
The symbols for the value mask bits and the
XGCValues
structure are:

/* GC attribute value mask bits */

#define     GCFunction              (1L<<0)
#define     GCPlaneMask             (1L<<1)
#define     GCForeground            (1L<<2)
#define     GCBackground            (1L<<3)
#define     GCLineWidth             (1L<<4)
#define     GCLineStyle             (1L<<5)
#define     GCCapStyle              (1L<<6)
#define     GCJoinStyle             (1L<<7)
#define     GCFillStyle             (1L<<8)
#define     GCFillRule              (1L<<9)
#define     GCTile                  (1L<<10)
#define     GCStipple               (1L<<11)
#define     GCTileStipXOrigin       (1L<<12)
#define     GCTileStipYOrigin       (1L<<13)
#define     GCFont                  (1L<<14)
#define     GCSubwindowMode         (1L<<15)
#define     GCGraphicsExposures     (1L<<16)
#define     GCClipXOrigin           (1L<<17)
#define     GCClipYOrigin           (1L<<18)
#define     GCClipMask              (1L<<19)
#define     GCDashOffset            (1L<<20)
#define     GCDashList              (1L<<21)
#define     GCArcMode               (1L<<22)

/* Values */

typedef struct {
     int function;                 /* logical operation */
     unsigned long plane_mask;     /* plane mask */
     unsigned long foreground;     /* foreground pixel */
     unsigned long background;     /* background pixel */
     int line_width;               /* line width (in pixels) */
     int line_style;               /* LineSolid, LineOnOffDash, LineDoubleDash */
     int cap_style;                /* CapNotLast, CapButt, CapRound, CapProjecting */
     int join_style;               /* JoinMiter, JoinRound, JoinBevel */
     int fill_style;               /* FillSolid, FillTiled, FillStippled FillOpaqueStippled*/
     int fill_rule;                /* EvenOddRule, WindingRule */
     int arc_mode;                 /* ArcChord, ArcPieSlice */
     Pixmap tile;                  /* tile pixmap for tiling operations */
     Pixmap stipple;               /* stipple 1 plane pixmap for stippling */
     int ts_x_origin;              /* offset for tile or stipple operations */
     int ts_y_origin
     Font font;                    /* default text font for text operations */
     int subwindow_mode;           /* ClipByChildren, IncludeInferiors */
     Bool graphics_exposures;      /* boolean, should exposures be generated */
     int clip_x_origin;            /* origin for clipping */
     int clip_y_origin;
     Pixmap clip_mask;             /* bitmap clipping; other calls for rects */
     int dash_offset;              /* patterned/dashed line information */
     char dashes;
} XGCValues;

The default GC values are:

Component Default
function GXcopy
plane_mask All ones
foreground 0
background 1
line_width 0
line_style LineSolid
cap_style CapButt
join_style JoinMiter
fill_style FillSolid
fill_rule EvenOddRule
arc_mode ArcPieSlice
tile

Pixmap of unspecified size filled with foreground pixel

(that is, client specified pixel if any, else 0)

(subsequent changes to foreground do not affect this pixmap)

stipple Pixmap of unspecified size filled with ones
ts_x_origin 0
ts_y_origin 0
font <implementation dependent>
subwindow_mode ClipByChildren
graphics_exposures True
clip_x_origin 0
clip_y_origin 0
clip_mask None
dash_offset 0
dashes 4 (that is, the list [4, 4])

Note that foreground and background are not set to any values likely
to be useful in a window.




The function attributes of a GC are used when you update a section of
a drawable (the destination) with bits from somewhere else (the source).
The function in a GC defines how the new destination bits are to be
computed from the source bits and the old destination bits.
GXcopy
is typically the most useful because it will work on a color display,
but special applications may use other functions,
particularly in concert with particular planes of a color display.
The 16 GC functions, defined in
<X11/X.h>,



are:

Function Name Value Operation
GXclear 0x0 0
GXand 0x1 src AND dst
GXandReverse 0x2 src AND NOT dst
GXcopy 0x3 src
GXandInverted 0x4 (NOT src) AND dst
GXnoop 0x5 dst
GXxor 0x6 src XOR dst
GXor 0x7 src OR dst
GXnor 0x8 (NOT src) AND (NOT dst)
GXequiv 0x9 (NOT src) XOR dst
GXinvert 0xa NOT dst
GXorReverse 0xb src OR (NOT dst)
GXcopyInverted 0xc NOT src
GXorInverted 0xd (NOT src) OR dst
GXnand 0xe (NOT src) OR (NOT dst)
GXset 0xf 1

Many graphics operations depend on either pixel values or planes in a GC.

The planes attribute is of type long, and it specifies which planes of the
destination are to be modified, one bit per plane.

A monochrome display has only one plane and
will be the least significant bit of the word.
As planes are added to the display hardware, they will occupy more
significant bits in the plane mask.

In graphics operations, given a source and destination pixel,
the result is computed bitwise on corresponding bits of the pixels.
That is, a Boolean operation is performed in each bit plane.
The plane_mask restricts the operation to a subset of planes.
A macro constant
AllPlanes
can be used to refer to all planes of the screen simultaneously.
The result is computed by the following:

((src FUNC dst) AND plane-mask) OR (dst AND (NOT plane-mask))

Range checking is not performed on the values for foreground,
background, or plane_mask.
They are simply truncated to the appropriate
number of bits.
The line-width is measured in pixels and either can be greater than or equal to
one (wide line) or can be the special value zero (thin line).

Wide lines are drawn centered on the path described by the graphics request.
Unless otherwise specified by the join-style or cap-style,
the bounding box of a wide line with endpoints [x1, y1], [x2, y2] and
width w is a rectangle with vertices at the following real coordinates:


[x1-(w*sn/2), y1+(w*cs/2)], [x1+(w*sn/2), y1-(w*cs/2)],
[x2-(w*sn/2), y2+(w*cs/2)], [x2+(w*sn/2), y2-(w*cs/2)]

Here sn is the sine of the angle of the line,
and cs is the cosine of the angle of the line.
A pixel is part of the line and so is drawn
if the center of the pixel is fully inside the bounding box
(which is viewed as having infinitely thin edges).
If the center of the pixel is exactly on the bounding box,
it is part of the line if and only if the interior is immediately to its right
(x increasing direction).
Pixels with centers on a horizontal edge are a special case and are part of
the line if and only if the interior or the boundary is immediately below
(y increasing direction) and the interior or the boundary is immediately
to the right (x increasing direction).

Thin lines (zero line-width) are one-pixel-wide lines drawn using an
unspecified, device-dependent algorithm.
There are only two constraints on this algorithm.

  • If a line is drawn unclipped from [x1,y1] to [x2,y2] and
    if another line is drawn unclipped from [x1+dx,y1+dy] to [x2+dx,y2+dy],
    a point [x,y] is touched by drawing the first line
    if and only if the point [x+dx,y+dy] is touched by drawing the second line.

  • The effective set of points comprising a line cannot be affected by clipping.
    That is, a point is touched in a clipped line if and only if the point
    lies inside the clipping region and the point would be touched
    by the line when drawn unclipped.

A wide line drawn from [x1,y1] to [x2,y2] always draws the same pixels
as a wide line drawn from [x2,y2] to [x1,y1], not counting cap-style
and join-style.
It is recommended that this property be true for thin lines,
but this is not required.
A line-width of zero may differ from a line-width of one in which pixels are
drawn.
This permits the use of many manufacturers' line drawing hardware,
which may run many times faster than the more precisely specified
wide lines.

In general,
drawing a thin line will be faster than drawing a wide line of width one.
However, because of their different drawing algorithms,
thin lines may not mix well aesthetically with wide lines.
If it is desirable to obtain precise and uniform results across all displays,
a client should always use a line-width of one rather than a line-width of zero.

The line-style defines which sections of a line are drawn:

LineSolid

The full path of the line is drawn.

LineDoubleDash

The full path of the line is drawn,
but the even dashes are filled differently
from the odd dashes (see fill-style) with
CapButt
style used where even and odd dashes meet.

LineOnOffDash

Only the even dashes are drawn,
and cap-style applies to
all internal ends of the individual dashes,
except
CapNotLast
is treated as
CapButt.

The cap-style defines how the endpoints of a path are drawn:

CapNotLast

This is equivalent to
CapButt
except that for a line-width of zero the final endpoint is not drawn.

CapButt

The line is square at the endpoint (perpendicular to the slope of the line)
with no projection beyond.

CapRound

The line has a circular arc with the diameter equal to the line-width,
centered on the endpoint.
(This is equivalent to
CapButt
for line-width of zero).

CapProjecting

The line is square at the end, but the path continues beyond the endpoint
for a distance equal to half the line-width.
(This is equivalent to
CapButt
for line-width of zero).

The join-style defines how corners are drawn for wide lines:

JoinMiter

The outer edges of two lines extend to meet at an angle.
However, if the angle is less than 11 degrees,
then a
JoinBevel
join-style is used instead.

JoinRound

The corner is a circular arc with the diameter equal to the line-width,
centered on the joinpoint.

JoinBevel

The corner has
CapButt
endpoint styles with the triangular notch filled.

For a line with coincident endpoints (x1=x2, y1=y2),
when the cap-style is applied to both endpoints,
the semantics depends on the line-width and the cap-style:

CapNotLast thin The results are device dependent,
but the desired effect is that nothing is drawn.
CapButt thin The results are device dependent,
but the desired effect is that a single pixel is drawn.
CapRound thin The results are the same as for
CapButt /thin.
CapProjecting thin The results are the same as for
CapButt /thin.
CapButt wide Nothing is drawn.
CapRound wide The closed path is a circle, centered at the endpoint, and
with the diameter equal to the line-width.
CapProjecting wide The closed path is a square, aligned with the coordinate axes, centered at the
endpoint, and with the sides equal to the line-width.

For a line with coincident endpoints (x1=x2, y1=y2),
when the join-style is applied at one or both endpoints,
the effect is as if the line was removed from the overall path.
However, if the total path consists of or is reduced to a single point joined
with itself, the effect is the same as when the cap-style is applied at both
endpoints.

The tile/stipple represents an infinite two-dimensional plane,
with the tile/stipple replicated in all dimensions.
When that plane is superimposed on the drawable
for use in a graphics operation, the upper-left corner
of some instance of the tile/stipple is at the coordinates within
the drawable specified by the tile/stipple origin.
The tile/stipple and clip origins are interpreted relative to the
origin of whatever destination drawable is specified in a graphics
request.
The tile pixmap must have the same root and depth as the GC,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The stipple pixmap must have depth one and must have the same root as the
GC, or a
BadMatch
error results.
For stipple operations where the fill-style is
FillStippled
but not
FillOpaqueStippled,
the stipple pattern is tiled in a
single plane and acts as an additional clip mask to be ANDed with the clip-mask.
Although some sizes may be faster to use than others,
any size pixmap can be used for tiling or stippling.

The fill-style defines the contents of the source for line, text, and
fill requests.
For all text and fill requests (for example,
XDrawText,
XDrawText16,
XFillRectangle,
XFillPolygon,
and
XFillArc);
for line requests
with line-style
LineSolid
(for example,
XDrawLine,
XDrawSegments,
XDrawRectangle,
XDrawArc);
and for the even dashes for line requests with line-style
LineOnOffDash
or
LineDoubleDash,
the following apply:

FillSolid Foreground
FillTiled Tile
FillOpaqueStippled A tile with the same width and height as stipple,
but with background everywhere stipple has a zero
and with foreground everywhere stipple has a one
FillStippled Foreground masked by stipple

When drawing lines with line-style
LineDoubleDash,
the odd dashes are controlled by the fill-style in the following manner:

FillSolid Background
FillTiled Same as for even dashes
FillOpaqueStippled Same as for even dashes
FillStippled Background masked by stipple

Storing a pixmap in a GC might or might not result in a copy
being made.
If the pixmap is later used as the destination for a graphics request,
the change might or might not be reflected in the GC.
If the pixmap is used simultaneously in a graphics request both as
a destination and as a tile or stipple,
the results are undefined.

For optimum performance,
you should draw as much as possible with the same GC
(without changing its components).
The costs of changing GC components relative to using different GCs
depend on the display hardware and the server implementation.
It is quite likely that some amount of GC information will be
cached in display hardware and that such hardware can only cache a small number
of GCs.

The dashes value is actually a simplified form of the
more general patterns that can be set with
XSetDashes.
Specifying a
value of N is equivalent to specifying the two-element list [N, N] in
XSetDashes.
The value must be nonzero,
or a
BadValue
error results.

The clip-mask restricts writes to the destination drawable.
If the clip-mask is set to a pixmap,
it must have depth one and have the same root as the GC,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If clip-mask is set to
None,
the pixels are always drawn regardless of the clip origin.
The clip-mask also can be set by calling the
XSetClipRectangles
or
XSetRegion
functions.
Only pixels where the clip-mask has a bit set to 1 are drawn.
Pixels are not drawn outside the area covered by the clip-mask
or where the clip-mask has a bit set to 0.
The clip-mask affects all graphics requests.
The clip-mask does not clip sources.
The clip-mask origin is interpreted relative to the origin of whatever
destination drawable is specified in a graphics request.

You can set the subwindow-mode to
ClipByChildren
or
IncludeInferiors.
For
ClipByChildren,
both source and destination windows are
additionally clipped by all viewable
InputOutput
children.
For
IncludeInferiors,
neither source nor destination window is clipped by inferiors.
This will result in including subwindow contents in the source
and drawing through subwindow boundaries of the destination.
The use of
IncludeInferiors
on a window of one depth with mapped
inferiors of differing depth is not illegal, but the semantics are
undefined by the core protocol.

The fill-rule defines what pixels are inside (drawn) for
paths given in
XFillPolygon
requests and can be set to
EvenOddRule
or
WindingRule.
For
EvenOddRule,
a point is inside if
an infinite ray with the point as origin crosses the path an odd number
of times.
For
WindingRule,
a point is inside if an infinite ray with the
point as origin crosses an unequal number of clockwise and
counterclockwise directed path segments.
A clockwise directed path segment is one that crosses the ray from left to
right as observed from the point.
A counterclockwise segment is one that crosses the ray from right to left
as observed from the point.
The case where a directed line segment is coincident with the ray is
uninteresting because you can simply choose a different ray that is not
coincident with a segment.

For both
EvenOddRule
and
WindingRule,
a point is infinitely small,
and the path is an infinitely thin line.
A pixel is inside if the center point of the pixel is inside
and the center point is not on the boundary.
If the center point is on the boundary,
the pixel is inside if and only if the polygon interior is immediately to
its right (x increasing direction).
Pixels with centers on a horizontal edge are a special case
and are inside if and only if the polygon interior is immediately below
(y increasing direction).

The arc-mode controls filling in the
XFillArcs
function and can be set to
ArcPieSlice
or
ArcChord.
For
ArcPieSlice,
the arcs are pie-slice filled.
For
ArcChord,
the arcs are chord filled.

The graphics-exposure flag controls
GraphicsExpose
event generation
for
XCopyArea
and
XCopyPlane
requests (and any similar requests defined by extensions).

To create a new GC that is usable on a given screen with a
depth of drawable, use
XCreateGC.

GC XCreateGC(Display *display, Drawable d, unsigned long valuemask, XGCValues *values);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


valuemask

Specifies which components in the GC are to be set using the information in
the specified values structure.
This argument is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more of the valid
GC component mask bits.


values

Specifies any values as specified by the valuemask.

The
XCreateGC
function creates a graphics context and returns a GC.
The GC can be used with any destination drawable having the same root
and depth as the specified drawable.
Use with other drawables results in a
BadMatch
error.

XCreateGC
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadDrawable,
BadFont,
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
and
BadValue
errors.

To copy components from a source GC to a destination GC, use
XCopyGC.

XCopyGC(Display *display, GC src, GC dest, unsigned long valuemask);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


src

Specifies the components of the source GC.


valuemask

Specifies which components in the GC are to be copied to the destination
GC.
This argument is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more of the valid
GC component mask bits.


dest

Specifies the destination GC.

The
XCopyGC
function copies the specified components from the source GC
to the destination GC.
The source and destination GCs must have the same root and depth,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The valuemask specifies which component to copy, as for
XCreateGC.

XCopyGC
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

To change the components in a given GC, use
XChangeGC.

XChangeGC(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long valuemask, XGCValues *values);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


valuemask

Specifies which components in the GC are to be changed using information in
the specified values structure.
This argument is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more of the valid
GC component mask bits.


values

Specifies any values as specified by the valuemask.

The
XChangeGC
function changes the components specified by valuemask for
the specified GC.
The values argument contains the values to be set.
The values and restrictions are the same as for
XCreateGC.
Changing the clip-mask overrides any previous
XSetClipRectangles
request on the context.
Changing the dash-offset or dash-list
overrides any previous
XSetDashes
request on the context.
The order in which components are verified and altered is server dependent.
If an error is generated, a subset of the components may have been altered.

XChangeGC
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadFont,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
BadPixmap,
and
BadValue
errors.

To obtain components of a given GC, use
XGetGCValues.

Status XGetGCValues(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long valuemask, XGCValues *values_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


valuemask

Specifies which components in the GC are to be returned in the
values_return argument.
This argument is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more of the valid
GC component mask bits.


values_return

Returns the GC values in the specified
XGCValues
structure.

The
XGetGCValues
function returns the components specified by valuemask for the specified GC.
If the valuemask contains a valid set of GC mask bits
(GCFunction,
GCPlaneMask,
GCForeground,
GCBackground,
GCLineWidth,
GCLineStyle,
GCCapStyle,
GCJoinStyle,
GCFillStyle,
GCFillRule,
GCTile,
GCStipple,
GCTileStipXOrigin,
GCTileStipYOrigin,
GCFont,
GCSubwindowMode,
GCGraphicsExposures,
GCClipXOrigin,
GCClipYOrigin,
GCDashOffset,
or
GCArcMode)
and no error occurs,
XGetGCValues
sets the requested components in values_return and returns a nonzero status.
Otherwise, it returns a zero status.
Note that the clip-mask and dash-list (represented by the
GCClipMask
and
GCDashList
bits, respectively, in the valuemask)
cannot be requested.
Also note that an invalid resource ID (with one or more of the three
most significant bits set to 1) will be returned for
GCFont,
GCTile,
and
GCStipple
if the component has never been explicitly set by the client.

To free a given GC, use
XFreeGC.

XFreeGC(Display *display, GC gc);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.

The
XFreeGC
function destroys the specified GC as well as all the associated storage.

XFreeGC
can generate a
BadGC
error.

To obtain the
GContext
resource ID for a given GC, use
XGContextFromGC.

GContext XGContextFromGC(GC gc);


gc

Specifies the GC for which you want the resource ID.

Xlib usually defers sending changes to the components of a GC to the server
until a graphics function is actually called with that GC.
This permits batching of component changes into a single server request.
In some circumstances, however, it may be necessary for the client
to explicitly force sending the changes to the server.
An example might be when a protocol extension uses the GC indirectly,
in such a way that the extension interface cannot know what GC will be used.
To force sending GC component changes, use
XFlushGC.

void XFlushGC(Display *display, GC gc);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.

Using Graphics Context Convenience Routines

This section discusses how to set the:

  • Foreground, background, plane mask, or function components

  • Line attributes and dashes components

  • Fill style and fill rule components

  • Fill tile and stipple components

  • Font component

  • Clip region component

  • Arc mode, subwindow mode, and graphics exposure components

Setting the Foreground, Background, Function, or Plane Mask

To set the foreground, background, plane mask, and function components
for a given GC, use
XSetState.

XSetState(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long foreground, unsigned long background, int function, unsigned long plane_mask);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


foreground

Specifies the foreground you want to set for the specified GC.


background

Specifies the background you want to set for the specified GC.


function

Specifies the function you want to set for the specified GC.


plane_mask

Specifies the plane mask.

XSetState
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the foreground of a given GC, use
XSetForeground.

XSetForeground(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long foreground);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


foreground

Specifies the foreground you want to set for the specified GC.

XSetForeground
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadGC
errors.

To set the background of a given GC, use
XSetBackground.

XSetBackground(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long background);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


background

Specifies the background you want to set for the specified GC.

XSetBackground
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadGC
errors.

To set the display function in a given GC, use
XSetFunction.

XSetFunction(Display *display, GC gc, int function);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


function

Specifies the function you want to set for the specified GC.

XSetFunction
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the plane mask of a given GC, use
XSetPlaneMask.

XSetPlaneMask(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned long plane_mask);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


plane_mask

Specifies the plane mask.

XSetPlaneMask
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadGC
errors.

Setting the Line Attributes and Dashes

To set the line drawing components of a given GC, use
XSetLineAttributes.

XSetLineAttributes(Display *display, GC gc, unsigned int line_width, int line_style, int cap_style, int join_style);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


line_width

Specifies the line-width you want to set for the specified GC.


line_style

Specifies the line-style you want to set for the specified GC.
You can pass
LineSolid,
LineOnOffDash,
or
LineDoubleDash.


cap_style

Specifies the line-style and cap-style you want to set for the specified GC.
You can pass
CapNotLast,
CapButt,
CapRound,
or
CapProjecting.


join_style

Specifies the line join-style you want to set for the specified GC.
You can pass
JoinMiter,
JoinRound,
or
JoinBevel.

XSetLineAttributes
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the dash-offset and dash-list for dashed line styles of a given GC, use
XSetDashes.

XSetDashes(Display *display, GC gc, int dash_offset, char dash_list[], int n);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


dash_offset

Specifies the phase of the pattern for the dashed line-style you want to set
for the specified GC.


dash_list

Specifies the dash-list for the dashed line-style
you want to set for the specified GC.


n

Specifies the number of elements in dash_list.

The
XSetDashes
function sets the dash-offset and dash-list attributes for dashed line styles
in the specified GC.
There must be at least one element in the specified dash_list,
or a
BadValue
error results.
The initial and alternating elements (second, fourth, and so on)
of the dash_list are the even dashes, and
the others are the odd dashes.
Each element specifies a dash length in pixels.
All of the elements must be nonzero,
or a
BadValue
error results.
Specifying an odd-length list is equivalent to specifying the same list
concatenated with itself to produce an even-length list.

The dash-offset defines the phase of the pattern,
specifying how many pixels into the dash-list the pattern
should actually begin in any single graphics request.
Dashing is continuous through path elements combined with a join-style
but is reset to the dash-offset between each sequence of joined lines.

The unit of measure for dashes is the same for the ordinary coordinate system.
Ideally, a dash length is measured along the slope of the line, but implementations
are only required to match this ideal for horizontal and vertical lines.
Failing the ideal semantics, it is suggested that the length be measured along the
major axis of the line.
The major axis is defined as the x axis for lines drawn at an angle of between
−45 and +45 degrees or between 135 and 225 degrees from the x axis.
For all other lines, the major axis is the y axis.

XSetDashes
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

Setting the Fill Style and Fill Rule

To set the fill-style of a given GC, use
XSetFillStyle.

XSetFillStyle(Display *display, GC gc, int fill_style);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


fill_style

Specifies the fill-style you want to set for the specified GC.
You can pass
FillSolid,
FillTiled,
FillStippled,
or
FillOpaqueStippled.

XSetFillStyle
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the fill-rule of a given GC, use
XSetFillRule.

XSetFillRule(Display *display, GC gc, int fill_rule);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


fill_rule

Specifies the fill-rule you want to set for the specified GC.
You can pass
EvenOddRule
or
WindingRule.

XSetFillRule
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

Setting the Fill Tile and Stipple

Some displays have hardware support for tiling or
stippling with patterns of specific sizes.
Tiling and stippling operations that restrict themselves to those specific
sizes run much faster than such operations with arbitrary size patterns.
Xlib provides functions that you can use to determine the best size,
tile, or stipple for the display
as well as to set the tile or stipple shape and the tile or stipple origin.

To obtain the best size of a tile, stipple, or cursor, use
XQueryBestSize.

Status XQueryBestSize(Display *display, int class, Drawable which_screen, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int *width_return, unsigned int *height_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


class

Specifies the class that you are interested in.
You can pass
TileShape,
CursorShape,
or
StippleShape.


which_screen

Specifies any drawable on the screen.


width


height

Specify the width and height.


width_return


height_return

Return the width and height of the object best supported
by the display hardware.

The
XQueryBestSize
function returns the best or closest size to the specified size.
For
CursorShape,
this is the largest size that can be fully displayed on the screen specified by
which_screen.
For
TileShape,
this is the size that can be tiled fastest.
For
StippleShape,
this is the size that can be stippled fastest.
For
CursorShape,
the drawable indicates the desired screen.
For
TileShape
and
StippleShape,
the drawable indicates the screen and possibly the window class and depth.
An
InputOnly
window cannot be used as the drawable for
TileShape
or
StippleShape,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XQueryBestSize
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

To obtain the best fill tile shape, use
XQueryBestTile.

Status XQueryBestTile(Display *display, Drawable which_screen, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int *width_return, unsigned int *height_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


which_screen

Specifies any drawable on the screen.


width


height

Specify the width and height.


width_return


height_return

Return the width and height of the object best supported
by the display hardware.

The
XQueryBestTile
function returns the best or closest size, that is, the size that can be
tiled fastest on the screen specified by which_screen.
The drawable indicates the screen and possibly the window class and depth.
If an
InputOnly
window is used as the drawable, a
BadMatch
error results.

XQueryBestTile
can generate
BadDrawable
and
BadMatch
errors.

To obtain the best stipple shape, use
XQueryBestStipple.

Status XQueryBestStipple(Display *display, Drawable which_screen, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int *width_return, unsigned int *height_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


which_screen

Specifies any drawable on the screen.


width


height

Specify the width and height.


width_return


height_return

Return the width and height of the object best supported
by the display hardware.

The
XQueryBestStipple
function returns the best or closest size, that is, the size that can be
stippled fastest on the screen specified by which_screen.
The drawable indicates the screen and possibly the window class and depth.
If an
InputOnly
window is used as the drawable, a
BadMatch
error results.

XQueryBestStipple
can generate
BadDrawable
and
BadMatch
errors.

To set the fill tile of a given GC, use
XSetTile.

XSetTile(Display *display, GC gc, Pixmap tile);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


tile

Specifies the fill tile you want to set for the specified GC.

The tile and GC must have the same depth,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetTile
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadPixmap
errors.

To set the stipple of a given GC, use
XSetStipple.

XSetStipple(Display *display, GC gc, Pixmap stipple);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


stipple

Specifies the stipple you want to set for the specified GC.

The stipple must have a depth of one,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XSetStipple
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadPixmap
errors.

To set the tile or stipple origin of a given GC, use
XSetTSOrigin.

XSetTSOrigin(Display *display, GC gc, int ts_x_origin, int ts_y_origin);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


ts_x_origin


ts_y_origin

Specify the x and y coordinates of the tile and stipple origin.

When graphics requests call for tiling or stippling,
the parent's origin will be interpreted relative to whatever destination
drawable is specified in the graphics request.

XSetTSOrigin
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadGC
errors.

Setting the Current Font

To set the current font of a given GC, use
XSetFont.

XSetFont(Display *display, GC gc, Font font);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


font

Specifies the font.

XSetFont
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadFont,
and
BadGC
errors.

Setting the Clip Region

Xlib provides functions that you can use to set the clip-origin
and the clip-mask or set the clip-mask to a list of rectangles.

To set the clip-origin of a given GC, use
XSetClipOrigin.

XSetClipOrigin(Display *display, GC gc, int clip_x_origin, int clip_y_origin);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


clip_x_origin


clip_y_origin

Specify the x and y coordinates of the clip-mask origin.

The clip-mask origin is interpreted relative to the origin of whatever
destination drawable is specified in the graphics request.

XSetClipOrigin
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadGC
errors.

To set the clip-mask of a given GC to the specified pixmap, use
XSetClipMask.

XSetClipMask(Display *display, GC gc, Pixmap pixmap);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


pixmap

Specifies the pixmap or
None.

If the clip-mask is set to
None,
the pixels are always drawn (regardless of the clip-origin).

XSetClipMask
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadPixmap
errors.

To set the clip-mask of a given GC to the specified list of rectangles, use
XSetClipRectangles.

XSetClipRectangles(Display *display, GC gc, int clip_x_origin, int clip_y_origin, XRectangle rectangles[], int n, int ordering);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


clip_x_origin


clip_y_origin

Specify the x and y coordinates of the clip-mask origin.


rectangles

Specifies an array of rectangles that define the clip-mask.


n

Specifies the number of rectangles.


ordering

Specifies the ordering relations on the rectangles.
You can pass
Unsorted,
YSorted,
YXSorted,
or
YXBanded.

The
XSetClipRectangles
function changes the clip-mask in the specified GC
to the specified list of rectangles and sets the clip origin.
The output is clipped to remain contained within the
rectangles.
The clip-origin is interpreted relative to the origin of
whatever destination drawable is specified in a graphics request.
The rectangle coordinates are interpreted relative to the clip-origin.
The rectangles should be nonintersecting, or the graphics results will be
undefined.
Note that the list of rectangles can be empty,
which effectively disables output.
This is the opposite of passing
None
as the clip-mask in
XCreateGC,
XChangeGC,
and
XSetClipMask.

If known by the client, ordering relations on the rectangles can be
specified with the ordering argument.
This may provide faster operation
by the server.
If an incorrect ordering is specified, the X server may generate a
BadMatch
error, but it is not required to do so.
If no error is generated, the graphics
results are undefined.
Unsorted
means the rectangles are in arbitrary order.
YSorted
means that the rectangles are nondecreasing in their Y origin.
YXSorted
additionally constrains
YSorted
order in that all
rectangles with an equal Y origin are nondecreasing in their X
origin.
YXBanded
additionally constrains
YXSorted
by requiring that,
for every possible Y scanline, all rectangles that include that
scanline have an identical Y origins and Y extents.

XSetClipRectangles
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

Xlib provides a set of basic functions for performing
region arithmetic.
For information about these functions,
see section 16.5.

Setting the Arc Mode, Subwindow Mode, and Graphics Exposure

To set the arc mode of a given GC, use
XSetArcMode.

XSetArcMode(Display *display, GC gc, int arc_mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


arc_mode

Specifies the arc mode.
You can pass
ArcChord
or
ArcPieSlice.

XSetArcMode
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the subwindow mode of a given GC, use
XSetSubwindowMode.

XSetSubwindowMode(Display *display, GC gc, int subwindow_mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


subwindow_mode

Specifies the subwindow mode.
You can pass
ClipByChildren
or
IncludeInferiors.

XSetSubwindowMode
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

To set the graphics-exposures flag of a given GC, use
XSetGraphicsExposures.

XSetGraphicsExposures(Display *display, GC gc, Bool graphics_exposures);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


gc

Specifies the GC.


graphics_exposures

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates whether you want
GraphicsExpose
and
NoExpose
events to be reported when calling
XCopyArea
and
XCopyPlane
with this GC.

XSetGraphicsExposures
can generate
BadAlloc,
BadGC,
and
BadValue
errors.

Chapter 8. Graphics Functions

Table of Contents

Clearing AreasCopying AreasDrawing Points, Lines, Rectangles, and ArcsDrawing Single and Multiple PointsDrawing Single and Multiple LinesDrawing Single and Multiple RectanglesDrawing Single and Multiple ArcsFilling AreasFilling Single and Multiple RectanglesFilling a Single PolygonFilling Single and Multiple ArcsFont MetricsLoading and Freeing FontsObtaining and Freeing Font Names and InformationComputing Character String SizesComputing Logical ExtentsQuerying Character String SizesDrawing TextDrawing Complex TextDrawing Text CharactersDrawing Image Text CharactersTransferring Images between Client and Server

Once you have established a connection to a display, you can use the Xlib graphics functions to:

  • Clear and copy areas

  • Draw points, lines, rectangles, and arcs

  • Fill areas

  • Manipulate fonts

  • Draw text

  • Transfer images between clients and the server

If the same drawable and GC is used for each call, Xlib batches back-to-back
calls to XDrawPoint, XDrawLine, XDrawRectangle, XFillArc, and XFillRectangle.
Note that this reduces the total number of requests sent to the server.

Clearing Areas

Xlib provides functions that you can use to clear an area or the entire window.
Because pixmaps do not have defined backgrounds,
they cannot be filled by using the functions described in this section.
Instead, to accomplish an analogous operation on a pixmap,
you should use
XFillRectangle,
which sets the pixmap to a known value.

To clear a rectangular area of a given window, use
XClearArea.

XClearArea(Display *display, Window w, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, Bool exposures);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
window and specify the upper-left corner of the rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the dimensions of the rectangle.


exposures

Specifies a Boolean value that indicates if
Expose
events are to be generated.

The
XClearArea
function paints a rectangular area in the specified window according to the
specified dimensions with the window's background pixel or pixmap.
The subwindow-mode effectively is
ClipByChildren.
If width is zero, it
is replaced with the current width of the window minus x.
If height is
zero, it is replaced with the current height of the window minus y.
If the window has a defined background tile,
the rectangle clipped by any children is filled with this tile.
If the window has
background
None,
the contents of the window are not changed.
In either
case, if exposures is
True,
one or more
Expose
events are generated for regions of the rectangle that are either visible or are
being retained in a backing store.
If you specify a window whose class is
InputOnly,
a
BadMatch
error results.

XClearArea
can generate
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To clear the entire area in a given window, use
XClearWindow.

XClearWindow(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.

The
XClearWindow
function clears the entire area in the specified window and is
equivalent to
XClearArea
(display, w, 0, 0, 0, 0,
False).
If the window has a defined background tile, the rectangle is tiled with a
plane-mask of all ones and
GXcopy
function.
If the window has
background
None,
the contents of the window are not changed.
If you specify a window whose class is
InputOnly,
a
BadMatch
error results.

XClearWindow
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

Copying Areas

Xlib provides functions that you can use to copy an area or a bit plane.

To copy an area between drawables of the same
root and depth, use
XCopyArea.

XCopyArea(Display *display, Drawable src, Drawable dest, GC gc, int src_x, int src_y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, int dest_x, int dest_y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


src


dest

Specify the source and destination rectangles to be combined.


gc

Specifies the GC.


src_x


src_y

Specify the x and y coordinates,
which are relative to the origin of the source rectangle
and specify its upper-left corner.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the dimensions of both the source
and destination rectangles.


dest_x


dest_y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
destination rectangle and specify its upper-left corner.

The
XCopyArea
function combines the specified rectangle of src with the specified rectangle
of dest.
The drawables must have the same root and depth,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

If regions of the source rectangle are obscured and have not been
retained in backing store
or if regions outside the boundaries of the source drawable are specified,
those regions are not copied.
Instead, the
following occurs on all corresponding destination regions that are either
visible or are retained in backing store.
If the destination is a window with a background other than
None,
corresponding regions
of the destination are tiled with that background
(with plane-mask of all ones and
GXcopy
function).
Regardless of tiling or whether the destination is a window or a pixmap,
if graphics-exposures is
True,
then
GraphicsExpose
events for all corresponding destination regions are generated.
If graphics-exposures is
True
but no
GraphicsExpose
events are generated, a
NoExpose
event is generated.
Note that by default graphics-exposures is
True
in new GCs.

This function uses these GC components: function, plane-mask,
subwindow-mode, graphics-exposures, clip-x-origin,
clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.

XCopyArea
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

To copy a single bit plane of a given drawable, use
XCopyPlane.

XCopyPlane(Display *display, Drawable src, Drawable dest, GC gc, int src_x, int src_y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, int dest_x, int dest_y, unsigned long plane);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


src


dest

Specify the source and destination rectangles to be combined.


gc

Specifies the GC.


src_x


src_y

Specify the x and y coordinates,
which are relative to the origin of the source rectangle
and specify its upper-left corner.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the dimensions of both the source
and destination rectangles.


dest_x


dest_y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
destination rectangle and specify its upper-left corner.


plane

Specifies the bit plane.
You must set exactly one bit to 1.

The
XCopyPlane
function uses a single bit plane of the specified source rectangle
combined with the specified GC to modify the specified rectangle of dest.
The drawables must have the same root but need not have the same depth.
If the drawables do not have the same root, a
BadMatch
error results.
If plane does not have exactly one bit set to 1 and the value of plane
is not less than %2 sup n%, where n is the depth of src, a
BadValue
error results.

Effectively,
XCopyPlane
forms a pixmap of the same depth as the rectangle of dest and with a
size specified by the source region.
It uses the foreground/background pixels in the GC (foreground
everywhere the bit plane in src contains a bit set to 1,
background everywhere the bit plane in src contains a bit set to 0)
and the equivalent of a
CopyArea
protocol request is performed with all the same exposure semantics.
This can also be thought of as using the specified region of the source
bit plane as a stipple with a fill-style of
FillOpaqueStippled
for filling a rectangular area of the destination.

This function uses these GC components: function, plane-mask, foreground,
background, subwindow-mode, graphics-exposures, clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin,
and clip-mask.

XCopyPlane
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

Drawing Points, Lines, Rectangles, and Arcs

Xlib provides functions that you can use to draw:

  • A single point or multiple points

  • A single line or multiple lines

  • A single rectangle or multiple rectangles

  • A single arc or multiple arcs

Some of the functions described in the following sections
use these structures:


typedef struct {
     short x1, y1, x2, y2;
} XSegment;


typedef struct {
     short x, y;
} XPoint;


typedef struct {
     short x, y;
     unsigned short width, height;
} XRectangle;


typedef struct {
     short x, y;
     unsigned short width, height;
     short angle1, angle2;             /* Degrees * 64 */
} XArc;

All x and y members are signed integers.
The width and height members are 16-bit unsigned integers.
You should be careful not to generate coordinates and sizes
out of the 16-bit ranges, because the protocol only has 16-bit fields
for these values.

Drawing Single and Multiple Points




To draw a single point in a given drawable, use
XDrawPoint.

XDrawPoint(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates where you want the point drawn.

To draw multiple points in a given drawable, use
XDrawPoints.

XDrawPoints(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XPoint *points, int npoints, int mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


points

Specifies an array of points.


npoints

Specifies the number of points in the array.


mode

Specifies the coordinate mode.
You can pass
CoordModeOrigin
or
CoordModePrevious.

The
XDrawPoint
function uses the foreground pixel and function components of the
GC to draw a single point into the specified drawable;
XDrawPoints
draws multiple points this way.
CoordModeOrigin
treats all coordinates as relative to the origin,
and
CoordModePrevious
treats all coordinates after the first as relative to the previous point.
XDrawPoints
draws the points in the order listed in the array.

Both functions use these GC components: function, plane-mask,
foreground, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.

XDrawPoint
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.
XDrawPoints
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

Drawing Single and Multiple Lines







To draw a single line between two points in a given drawable, use
XDrawLine.

XDrawLine(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x1


y1


x2


y2

Specify the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) to be connected.

To draw multiple lines in a given drawable, use
XDrawLines.

XDrawLines(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XPoint *points, int npoints, int mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


points

Specifies an array of points.


npoints

Specifies the number of points in the array.


mode

Specifies the coordinate mode.
You can pass
CoordModeOrigin
or
CoordModePrevious.

To draw multiple, unconnected lines in a given drawable,
use
XDrawSegments.

XDrawSegments(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XSegment *segments, int nsegments);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


segments

Specifies an array of segments.


nsegments

Specifies the number of segments in the array.

The
XDrawLine
function uses the components of the specified GC to
draw a line between the specified set of points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).
It does not perform joining at coincident endpoints.
For any given line,
XDrawLine
does not draw a pixel more than once.
If lines intersect, the intersecting pixels are drawn multiple times.

The
XDrawLines
function uses the components of the specified GC to draw
npoints-1 lines between each pair of points (point[i], point[i+1])
in the array of
XPoint
structures.
It draws the lines in the order listed in the array.
The lines join correctly at all intermediate points, and if the first and last
points coincide, the first and last lines also join correctly.
For any given line,
XDrawLines
does not draw a pixel more than once.
If thin (zero line-width) lines intersect,
the intersecting pixels are drawn multiple times.
If wide lines intersect, the intersecting pixels are drawn only once, as though
the entire
PolyLine
protocol request were a single, filled shape.
CoordModeOrigin
treats all coordinates as relative to the origin,
and
CoordModePrevious
treats all coordinates after the first as relative to the previous point.

The
XDrawSegments
function draws multiple, unconnected lines.
For each segment,
XDrawSegments
draws a
line between (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).
It draws the lines in the order listed in the array of
XSegment
structures and does not perform joining at coincident endpoints.
For any given line,
XDrawSegments
does not draw a pixel more than once.
If lines intersect, the intersecting pixels are drawn multiple times.

All three functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, line-width,
line-style, cap-style, fill-style, subwindow-mode,
clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
The
XDrawLines
function also uses the join-style GC component.
All three functions also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
tile-stipple-y-origin, dash-offset, and dash-list.

XDrawLine,
XDrawLines,
and
XDrawSegments
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.
XDrawLines
also can generate
BadValue
errors.

Drawing Single and Multiple Rectangles




To draw the outline of a single rectangle in a given drawable, use
XDrawRectangle.

XDrawRectangle(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which specify the upper-left corner of the
rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which specify the dimensions of the
rectangle.

To draw the outline of multiple rectangles
in a given drawable, use
XDrawRectangles.

XDrawRectangles(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XRectangle rectangles[], int nrectangles);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


rectangles

Specifies an array of rectangles.


nrectangles

Specifies the number of rectangles in the array.

The
XDrawRectangle
and
XDrawRectangles
functions draw the outlines of the specified rectangle or rectangles as
if a five-point
PolyLine
protocol request were specified for each rectangle:

  • [x,y] [x+width,y] [x+width,y+height] [x,y+height] [x,y]

For the specified rectangle or rectangles,
these functions do not draw a pixel more than once.
XDrawRectangles
draws the rectangles in the order listed in the array.
If rectangles intersect,
the intersecting pixels are drawn multiple times.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, line-width,
line-style, cap-style, join-style, fill-style,
subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
tile-stipple-y-origin, dash-offset, and dash-list.

XDrawRectangle
and
XDrawRectangles
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Drawing Single and Multiple Arcs




To draw a single arc in a given drawable, use
XDrawArc.

XDrawArc(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, int angle1, int angle2);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and specify the upper-left corner of the bounding rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the major and minor axes of the
arc.


angle1

Specifies the start of the arc relative to the three-o'clock position
from the center, in units of degrees * 64.


angle2

Specifies the path and extent of the arc relative to the start of the
arc, in units of degrees * 64.

To draw multiple arcs in a given drawable, use
XDrawArcs.

XDrawArcs(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XArc *arcs, int narcs);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


arcs

Specifies an array of arcs.


narcs

Specifies the number of arcs in the array.

delim %%

XDrawArc
draws a single circular or elliptical arc, and
XDrawArcs
draws multiple circular or elliptical arcs.
Each arc is specified by a rectangle and two angles.
The center of the circle or ellipse is the center of the
rectangle, and the major and minor axes are specified by the width and height.
Positive angles indicate counterclockwise motion,
and negative angles indicate clockwise motion.
If the magnitude of angle2 is greater than 360 degrees,
XDrawArc
or
XDrawArcs
truncates it to 360 degrees.

For an arc specified as %[ ~x, ~y, ~width , ~height, ~angle1, ~angle2 ]%,
the origin of the major and minor axes is at
% [ x +^ {width over 2} , ~y +^ {height over 2} ]%,
and the infinitely thin path describing the entire circle or ellipse
intersects the horizontal axis at % [ x, ~y +^ {height over 2} ]% and
% [ x +^ width , ~y +^ { height over 2 }] %
and intersects the vertical axis at % [ x +^ { width over 2 } , ~y ]% and
% [ x +^ { width over 2 }, ~y +^ height ]%.
These coordinates can be fractional
and so are not truncated to discrete coordinates.
The path should be defined by the ideal mathematical path.
For a wide line with line-width lw,
the bounding outlines for filling are given
by the two infinitely thin paths consisting of all points whose perpendicular
distance from the path of the circle/ellipse is equal to lw/2
(which may be a fractional value).
The cap-style and join-style are applied the same as for a line
corresponding to the tangent of the circle/ellipse at the endpoint.

For an arc specified as % [ ~x, ~y, ~width, ~height, ~angle1, ~angle2 ]%,
the angles must be specified
in the effectively skewed coordinate system of the ellipse (for a
circle, the angles and coordinate systems are identical). The
relationship between these angles and angles expressed in the normal
coordinate system of the screen (as measured with a protractor) is as
follows:

% roman "skewed-angle" ~ = ~ atan left ( tan ( roman "normal-angle" )
 * width over height right ) +^ adjust%

The skewed-angle and normal-angle are expressed in radians (rather
than in degrees scaled by 64) in the range % [ 0 , ~2 pi ]% and where atan
returns a value in the range % [ - pi over 2 , ~pi over 2 ] %
and adjust is:


%0%     for normal-angle in the range % [ 0 , ~pi over 2  ]%
%pi%     for normal-angle in the range % [ pi over 2 , ~{3 pi} over 2  ]%
%2 pi%     for normal-angle in the range % [ {3 pi} over 2 , ~2 pi  ]%

For any given arc,
XDrawArc
and
XDrawArcs
do not draw a pixel more than once.
If two arcs join correctly and if the line-width is greater than zero
and the arcs intersect,
XDrawArc
and
XDrawArcs
do not draw a pixel more than once.
Otherwise,
the intersecting pixels of intersecting arcs are drawn multiple times.
Specifying an arc with one endpoint and a clockwise extent draws the same pixels
as specifying the other endpoint and an equivalent counterclockwise extent,
except as it affects joins.

If the last point in one arc coincides with the first point in the following
arc, the two arcs will join correctly.
If the first point in the first arc coincides with the last point in the last
arc, the two arcs will join correctly.
By specifying one axis to be zero, a horizontal or vertical line can be
drawn.
Angles are computed based solely on the coordinate system and ignore the
aspect ratio.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, line-width, line-style, cap-style, join-style,
fill-style, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
tile-stipple-y-origin, dash-offset, and dash-list.

XDrawArc
and
XDrawArcs
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Filling Areas

Xlib provides functions that you can use to fill:

  • A single rectangle or multiple rectangles

  • A single polygon

  • A single arc or multiple arcs

Filling Single and Multiple Rectangles




To fill a single rectangular area in a given drawable, use
XFillRectangle.

XFillRectangle(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and specify the upper-left corner of the rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the dimensions of the rectangle to
be filled.

To fill multiple rectangular areas in a given drawable, use
XFillRectangles.

XFillRectangles(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XRectangle *rectangles, int nrectangles);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


rectangles

Specifies an array of rectangles.


nrectangles

Specifies the number of rectangles in the array.

The
XFillRectangle
and
XFillRectangles
functions fill the specified rectangle or rectangles
as if a four-point
FillPolygon
protocol request were specified for each rectangle:

[x,y] [x+width,y] [x+width,y+height] [x,y+height]

Each function uses the x and y coordinates,
width and height dimensions, and GC you specify.

XFillRectangles
fills the rectangles in the order listed in the array.
For any given rectangle,
XFillRectangle
and
XFillRectangles
do not draw a pixel more than once.
If rectangles intersect, the intersecting pixels are
drawn multiple times.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, fill-style, subwindow-mode,
clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
and tile-stipple-y-origin.

XFillRectangle
and
XFillRectangles
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Filling a Single Polygon

To fill a polygon area in a given drawable, use
XFillPolygon.

XFillPolygon(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XPoint *points, int npoints, int shape, int mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


points

Specifies an array of points.


npoints

Specifies the number of points in the array.


shape

Specifies a shape that helps the server to improve performance.
You can pass
Complex,
Convex,
or
Nonconvex.


mode

Specifies the coordinate mode.
You can pass
CoordModeOrigin
or
CoordModePrevious.

XFillPolygon
fills the region closed by the specified path.
The path is closed
automatically if the last point in the list does not coincide with the
first point.
XFillPolygon
does not draw a pixel of the region more than once.
CoordModeOrigin
treats all coordinates as relative to the origin,
and
CoordModePrevious
treats all coordinates after the first as relative to the previous point.

Depending on the specified shape, the following occurs:

  • If shape is
    Complex,
    the path may self-intersect.
    Note that contiguous coincident points in the path are not treated
    as self-intersection.

  • If shape is
    Convex,
    for every pair of points inside the polygon,
    the line segment connecting them does not intersect the path.
    If known by the client,
    specifying
    Convex
    can improve performance.
    If you specify
    Convex
    for a path that is not convex,
    the graphics results are undefined.

  • If shape is
    Nonconvex,
    the path does not self-intersect, but the shape is not
    wholly convex.
    If known by the client,
    specifying
    Nonconvex
    instead of
    Complex
    may improve performance.
    If you specify
    Nonconvex
    for a self-intersecting path, the graphics results are undefined.

The fill-rule of the GC controls the filling behavior of
self-intersecting polygons.

This function uses these GC components:
function, plane-mask, fill-style, fill-rule, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin,
clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
It also uses these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
and tile-stipple-y-origin.

XFillPolygon
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

Filling Single and Multiple Arcs




To fill a single arc in a given drawable, use
XFillArc.

XFillArc(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, int angle1, int angle2);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and specify the upper-left corner of the bounding rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height, which are the major and minor axes of the
arc.


angle1

Specifies the start of the arc relative to the three-o'clock position
from the center, in units of degrees * 64.


angle2

Specifies the path and extent of the arc relative to the start of the
arc, in units of degrees * 64.

To fill multiple arcs in a given drawable, use
XFillArcs.

XFillArcs(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XArc *arcs, int narcs);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


arcs

Specifies an array of arcs.


narcs

Specifies the number of arcs in the array.

For each arc,
XFillArc
or
XFillArcs
fills the region closed by the infinitely thin path
described by the specified arc and, depending on the
arc-mode specified in the GC, one or two line segments.
For
ArcChord,
the single line segment joining the endpoints of the arc is used.
For
ArcPieSlice,
the two line segments joining the endpoints of the arc with the center
point are used.
XFillArcs
fills the arcs in the order listed in the array.
For any given arc,
XFillArc
and
XFillArcs
do not draw a pixel more than once.
If regions intersect,
the intersecting pixels are drawn multiple times.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, fill-style, arc-mode, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin,
clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
and tile-stipple-y-origin.

XFillArc
and
XFillArcs
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Font Metrics


A font is a graphical description of a set of characters that are used to
increase efficiency whenever a set of small, similar sized patterns are
repeatedly used.

This section discusses how to:

  • Load and free fonts

  • Obtain and free font names

  • Compute character string sizes

  • Compute logical extents

  • Query character string sizes

The X server loads fonts whenever a program requests a new font.
The server can cache fonts for quick lookup.
Fonts are global across all screens in a server.
Several levels are possible when dealing with fonts.
Most applications simply use
XLoadQueryFont
to load a font and query the font metrics.

Characters in fonts are regarded as masks.
Except for image text requests,
the only pixels modified are those in which bits are set to 1 in the character.
This means that it makes sense to draw text using stipples or tiles
(for example, many menus gray-out unusable entries).

The
XFontStruct
structure contains all of the information for the font
and consists of the font-specific information as well as
a pointer to an array of
XCharStruct
structures for the
characters contained in the font.
The
XFontStruct,
XFontProp,
and
XCharStruct
structures contain:


typedef struct {
     short lbearing;               /* origin to left edge of raster */
     short rbearing;               /* origin to right edge of raster */
     short width;                  /* advance to next char's origin */
     short ascent;                 /* baseline to top edge of raster */
     short descent;                /* baseline to bottom edge of raster */
     unsigned short attributes;    /* per char flags (not predefined) */
} XCharStruct;


typedef struct {
     Atom     name;
     unsigned long card32;
} XFontProp;


typedef struct {     /* normal 16 bit characters are two bytes */
    unsigned char byte1;
    unsigned char byte2;
} XChar2b;


typedef struct {
     XExtData *ext_data;               /* hook for extension to hang data */
     Font fid;                         /* Font id for this font */
     unsigned direction;               /* hint about the direction font is painted */
     unsigned min_char_or_byte2;       /* first character */
     unsigned max_char_or_byte2;       /* last character */
     unsigned min_byte1;               /* first row that exists */
     unsigned max_byte1;               /* last row that exists */
     Bool all_chars_exist;             /* flag if all characters have nonzero size */
     unsigned default_char;            /* char to print for undefined character */
     int n_properties;                 /* how many properties there are */
     XFontProp *properties;            /* pointer to array of additional properties */
     XCharStruct min_bounds;           /* minimum bounds over all existing char */
     XCharStruct max_bounds;           /* maximum bounds over all existing char */
     XCharStruct *per_char;            /* first_char to last_char information */
     int ascent;                       /* logical extent above baseline for spacing */
     int descent;                      /* logical descent below baseline for spacing */
} XFontStruct;

X supports single byte/character, two bytes/character matrix,
and 16-bit character text operations.
Note that any of these forms can be used with a font, but a
single byte/character text request can only specify a single byte
(that is, the first row of a 2-byte font).
You should view 2-byte fonts as a two-dimensional matrix of defined
characters: byte1 specifies the range of defined rows and
byte2 defines the range of defined columns of the font.
Single byte/character fonts have one row defined, and the byte2 range
specified in the structure defines a range of characters.

The bounding box of a character is defined by the
XCharStruct
of that character.
When characters are absent from a font,
the default_char is used.
When fonts have all characters of the same size,
only the information in the
XFontStruct
min and max bounds are used.

The members of the
XFontStruct
have the following semantics:

  • The direction member can be either
    FontLeftToRight
    or
    FontRightToLeft.
    It is just a hint as to whether most
    XCharStruct
    elements
    have a positive
    (FontLeftToRight)
    or a negative
    (FontRightToLeft)
    character width
    metric.
    The core protocol defines no support for vertical text.

  • If the min_byte1 and max_byte1 members are both zero, min_char_or_byte2
    specifies the linear character index corresponding to the first element
    of the per_char array, and max_char_or_byte2 specifies the linear character
    index of the last element.

  • If either min_byte1 or max_byte1 are nonzero, both
    min_char_or_byte2 and max_char_or_byte2 are less than 256,
    and the 2-byte character index values corresponding to the
    per_char array element N (counting from 0) are:

  • byte1 = N/D + min_byte1

    byte2 = N\\D + min_char_or_byte2

  • where:

  • D = max_char_or_byte2 - min_char_or_byte2 + 1
    / = integer division
    \\ = integer modulus

  • If the per_char pointer is NULL,
    all glyphs between the first and last character indexes
    inclusive have the same information,
    as given by both min_bounds and max_bounds.

  • If all_chars_exist is
    True,
    all characters in the per_char array have nonzero bounding boxes.

  • The default_char member specifies the character that will be used when an
    undefined or nonexistent character is printed.
    The default_char is a 16-bit character (not a 2-byte character).
    For a font using 2-byte matrix format,
    the default_char has byte1 in the most-significant byte
    and byte2 in the least significant byte.
    If the default_char itself specifies an undefined or nonexistent character,
    no printing is performed for an undefined or nonexistent character.

  • The min_bounds and max_bounds members contain the most extreme values of
    each individual
    XCharStruct
    component over all elements of this array
    (and ignore nonexistent characters).
    The bounding box of the font (the smallest
    rectangle enclosing the shape obtained by superimposing all of the
    characters at the same origin [x,y]) has its upper-left coordinate at:

         [x + min_bounds.lbearing, y - max_bounds.ascent]
    
  • Its width is:

         max_bounds.rbearing - min_bounds.lbearing
    
  • Its height is:

         max_bounds.ascent + max_bounds.descent
    
  • The ascent member is the logical extent of the font above the baseline that is
    used for determining line spacing.
    Specific characters may extend beyond
    this.

  • The descent member is the logical extent of the font at or below the
    baseline that is used for determining line spacing.
    Specific characters may extend beyond this.

  • If the baseline is at Y-coordinate y,
    the logical extent of the font is inclusive between the Y-coordinate
    values (y - font.ascent) and (y + font.descent - 1).
    Typically,
    the minimum interline spacing between rows of text is given
    by ascent + descent.

For a character origin at [x,y],
the bounding box of a character (that is,
the smallest rectangle that encloses the character's shape)
described in terms of
XCharStruct
components is a rectangle with its upper-left corner at:

[x + lbearing, y - ascent]

Its width is:

rbearing - lbearing

Its height is:

ascent + descent

The origin for the next character is defined to be:

[x + width, y]

The lbearing member defines the extent of the left edge of the character ink
from the origin.
The rbearing member defines the extent of the right edge of the character ink
from the origin.
The ascent member defines the extent of the top edge of the character ink
from the origin.
The descent member defines the extent of the bottom edge of the character ink
from the origin.
The width member defines the logical width of the character.

Note that the baseline (the y position of the character origin)
is logically viewed as being the scanline just below nondescending characters.
When descent is zero,
only pixels with Y-coordinates less than y are drawn,
and the origin is logically viewed as being coincident with the left edge of
a nonkerned character.
When lbearing is zero,
no pixels with X-coordinate less than x are drawn.
Any of the
XCharStruct
metric members could be negative.
If the width is negative,
the next character will be placed to the left of the current origin.

The X protocol does not define the interpretation of the attributes member
in the
XCharStruct
structure.
A nonexistent character is represented with all members of its
XCharStruct
set to zero.

A font is not guaranteed to have any properties.
The interpretation of the property value (for example, long or unsigned long)
must be derived from a priori knowledge of the property.
A basic set of font properties is specified in the X Consortium standard
X Logical Font Description Conventions.

Loading and Freeing Fonts

Xlib provides functions that you can use to load fonts, get font information,
unload fonts, and free font information.



A few font functions use a
GContext
resource ID or a font ID interchangeably.

To load a given font, use
XLoadFont.

Font XLoadFont(Display *display, char *name);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


name

Specifies the name of the font,
which is a null-terminated string.

The
XLoadFont
function loads the specified font and returns its associated font ID.
If the font name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
When the characters “?” and “*” are used in a font name, a
pattern match is performed and any matching font is used.
In the pattern,
the “?” character will match any single character,
and the “*” character will match any number of characters.
A structured format for font names is specified in the X Consortium standard
X Logical Font Description Conventions.
If
XLoadFont
was unsuccessful at loading the specified font,
a
BadName
error results.
Fonts are not associated with a particular screen
and can be stored as a component
of any GC.
When the font is no longer needed, call
XUnloadFont.

XLoadFont
can generate
BadAlloc
and
BadName
errors.

To return information about an available font, use
XQueryFont.

XFontStruct *XQueryFont(Display *display, XID font_ID);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


font_ID

Specifies the font ID or the
GContext
ID.

The
XQueryFont
function returns a pointer to the
XFontStruct
structure, which contains information associated with the font.
You can query a font or the font stored in a GC.
The font ID stored in the
XFontStruct
structure will be the
GContext
ID, and you need to be careful when using this ID in other functions
(see
XGContextFromGC).
If the font does not exist,
XQueryFont
returns NULL.
To free this data, use
XFreeFontInfo.

To perform a
XLoadFont
and
XQueryFont
in a single operation, use
XLoadQueryFont.

XFontStruct *XLoadQueryFont(Display *display, char *name);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


name

Specifies the name of the font,
which is a null-terminated string.

The
XLoadQueryFont
function provides the most common way for accessing a font.
XLoadQueryFont
both opens (loads) the specified font and returns a pointer to the
appropriate
XFontStruct
structure.
If the font name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
If the font does not exist,
XLoadQueryFont
returns NULL.

XLoadQueryFont
can generate a
BadAlloc
error.

To unload the font and free the storage used by the font structure
that was allocated by
XQueryFont
or
XLoadQueryFont,
use
XFreeFont.

XFreeFont(Display *display, XFontStruct *font_struct);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


font_struct

Specifies the storage associated with the font.

The
XFreeFont
function deletes the association between the font resource ID and the specified
font and frees the
XFontStruct
structure.
The font itself will be freed when no other resource references it.
The data and the font should not be referenced again.

XFreeFont
can generate a
BadFont
error.

To return a given font property, use
XGetFontProperty.

Bool XGetFontProperty(XFontStruct *font_struct, Atom atom, unsigned long *value_return);


font_struct

Specifies the storage associated with the font.


atom

Specifies the atom for the property name you want returned.


value_return

Returns the value of the font property.

Given the atom for that property,
the
XGetFontProperty
function returns the value of the specified font property.
XGetFontProperty
also returns
False
if the property was not defined or
True
if it was defined.
A set of predefined atoms exists for font properties,
which can be found in
<X11/Xatom.h>.



This set contains the standard properties associated with
a font.
Although it is not guaranteed,
it is likely that the predefined font properties will be present.

To unload a font that was loaded by
XLoadFont,
use
XUnloadFont.

XUnloadFont(Display *display, Font font);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


font

Specifies the font.

The
XUnloadFont
function deletes the association between the font resource ID and the specified font.
The font itself will be freed when no other resource references it.
The font should not be referenced again.

XUnloadFont
can generate a
BadFont
error.

Obtaining and Freeing Font Names and Information

You obtain font names and information by matching a wildcard specification
when querying a font type for a list of available sizes and so on.

To return a list of the available font names, use
XListFonts.

char **XListFonts(Display *display, char *pattern, int maxnames, int *actual_count_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


pattern

Specifies the null-terminated pattern string that can contain wildcard
characters.


maxnames

Specifies the maximum number of names to be returned.


actual_count_return

Returns the actual number of font names.

The
XListFonts
function returns an array of available font names
(as controlled by the font search path; see
XSetFontPath)
that match the string you passed to the pattern argument.
The pattern string can contain any characters,
but each asterisk (*) is a wildcard for any number of characters,
and each question mark (?) is a wildcard for a single character.
If the pattern string is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
Each returned string is null-terminated.
If the data returned by the server is in the Latin Portable Character Encoding,
then the returned strings are in the Host Portable Character Encoding.
Otherwise, the result is implementation-dependent.
If there are no matching font names,
XListFonts
returns NULL.
The client should call
XFreeFontNames
when finished with the result to free the memory.

To free a font name array, use
XFreeFontNames.

XFreeFontNames(char *list[]);


list

Specifies the array of strings you want to free.

The
XFreeFontNames
function frees the array and strings returned by
XListFonts
or
XListFontsWithInfo.

To obtain the names and information about available fonts, use
XListFontsWithInfo.

char **XListFontsWithInfo(Display *display, char *pattern, int maxnames, int *count_return, XFontStruct **info_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


pattern

Specifies the null-terminated pattern string that can contain wildcard
characters.


maxnames

Specifies the maximum number of names to be returned.


count_return

Returns the actual number of matched font names.


info_return

Returns the font information.

The
XListFontsWithInfo
function returns a list of font names that match the specified pattern and their
associated font information.
The list of names is limited to size specified by maxnames.
The information returned for each font is identical to what
XLoadQueryFont
would return except that the per-character metrics are not returned.
The pattern string can contain any characters,
but each asterisk (*) is a wildcard for any number of characters,
and each question mark (?) is a wildcard for a single character.
If the pattern string is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding,
the result is implementation-dependent.
Use of uppercase or lowercase does not matter.
Each returned string is null-terminated.
If the data returned by the server is in the Latin Portable Character Encoding,
then the returned strings are in the Host Portable Character Encoding.
Otherwise, the result is implementation-dependent.
If there are no matching font names,
XListFontsWithInfo
returns NULL.

To free only the allocated name array,
the client should call
XFreeFontNames.
To free both the name array and the font information array
or to free just the font information array,
the client should call
XFreeFontInfo.

To free font structures and font names, use
XFreeFontInfo.

XFreeFontInfo(char **names, XFontStruct *free_info, int actual_count);


names

Specifies the list of font names.


free_info

Specifies the font information.


actual_count

Specifies the actual number of font names.

The
XFreeFontInfo
function frees a font structure or an array of font structures
and optionally an array of font names.
If NULL is passed for names, no font names are freed.
If a font structure for an open font (returned by
XLoadQueryFont)
is passed, the structure is freed,
but the font is not closed; use
XUnloadFont
to close the font.

Computing Character String Sizes

Xlib provides functions that you can use to compute the width,
the logical extents,
and the server information about 8-bit and 2-byte text strings.


The width is computed by adding the character widths of all the characters.
It does not matter if the font is an 8-bit or 2-byte font.
These functions return the sum of the character metrics in pixels.

To determine the width of an 8-bit character string, use
XTextWidth.

int XTextWidth(XFontStruct *font_struct, char *string, int count);


font_struct

Specifies the font used for the width computation.


string

Specifies the character string.


count

Specifies the character count in the specified string.

To determine the width of a 2-byte character string, use
XTextWidth16.

int XTextWidth16(XFontStruct *font_struct, XChar2b *string, int count);


font_struct

Specifies the font used for the width computation.


string

Specifies the character string.


count

Specifies the character count in the specified string.

Computing Logical Extents

To compute the bounding box of an 8-bit character string in a given font, use
XTextExtents.

XTextExtents(XFontStruct *font_struct, char *string, int nchars, int *direction_return, int *font_ascent_return, int *font_descent_return, XCharStruct *overall_return);


font_struct

Specifies the
XFontStruct
structure.


string

Specifies the character string.


nchars

Specifies the number of characters in the character string.


direction_return

Returns the value of the direction hint
(FontLeftToRight
or
FontRightToLeft).


font_ascent_return

Returns the font ascent.


font_descent_return

Returns the font descent.


overall_return

Returns the overall size in the specified
XCharStruct
structure.

To compute the bounding box of a 2-byte character string in a given font, use
XTextExtents16.

XTextExtents16(XFontStruct *font_struct, XChar2b *string, int nchars, int *direction_return, int *font_ascent_return, int *font_descent_return, XCharStruct *overall_return);


font_struct

Specifies the
XFontStruct
structure.


string

Specifies the character string.


nchars

Specifies the number of characters in the character string.


direction_return

Returns the value of the direction hint
(FontLeftToRight
or
FontRightToLeft).


font_ascent_return

Returns the font ascent.


font_descent_return

Returns the font descent.


overall_return

Returns the overall size in the specified
XCharStruct
structure.

The
XTextExtents
and
XTextExtents16
functions
perform the size computation locally and, thereby,
avoid the round-trip overhead of
XQueryTextExtents
and
XQueryTextExtents16.
Both functions return an
XCharStruct
structure, whose members are set to the values as follows.

The ascent member is set to the maximum of the ascent metrics of all
characters in the string.
The descent member is set to the maximum of the descent metrics.
The width member is set to the sum of the character-width metrics of all
characters in the string.
For each character in the string,
let W be the sum of the character-width metrics of all characters preceding
it in the string.
Let L be the left-side-bearing metric of the character plus W.
Let R be the right-side-bearing metric of the character plus W.
The lbearing member is set to the minimum L of all characters in the string.
The rbearing member is set to the maximum R.

For fonts defined with linear indexing rather than 2-byte matrix indexing,
each
XChar2b
structure is interpreted as a 16-bit number with byte1 as the
most significant byte.
If the font has no defined default character,
undefined characters in the string are taken to have all zero metrics.

Querying Character String Sizes

To query the server for the bounding box of an 8-bit character string in a
given font, use
XQueryTextExtents.

XQueryTextExtents(Display *display, XID font_ID, char *string, int nchars, int *direction_return, int *font_ascent_return, int *font_descent_return, XCharStruct *overall_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


font_ID

Specifies either the font ID or the
GContext
ID that contains the font.


string

Specifies the character string.


nchars

Specifies the number of characters in the character string.


direction_return

Returns the value of the direction hint
(FontLeftToRight
or
FontRightToLeft).


font_ascent_return

Returns the font ascent.


font_descent_return

Returns the font descent.


overall_return

Returns the overall size in the specified
XCharStruct
structure.

To query the server for the bounding box of a 2-byte character string
in a given font, use
XQueryTextExtents16.

XQueryTextExtents16(Display *display, XID font_ID, XChar2b *string, int nchars, int *direction_return, int *font_ascent_return, int *font_descent_return, XCharStruct *overall_return);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


font_ID

Specifies either the font ID or the
GContext
ID that contains the font.


string

Specifies the character string.


nchars

Specifies the number of characters in the character string.


direction_return

Returns the value of the direction hint
(FontLeftToRight
or
FontRightToLeft).


font_ascent_return

Returns the font ascent.


font_descent_return

Returns the font descent.


overall_return

Returns the overall size in the specified
XCharStruct
structure.

The
XQueryTextExtents
and
XQueryTextExtents16
functions return the bounding box of the specified 8-bit and 16-bit
character string in the specified font or the font contained in the
specified GC.
These functions query the X server and, therefore, suffer the round-trip
overhead that is avoided by
XTextExtents
and
XTextExtents16.
Both functions return a
XCharStruct
structure, whose members are set to the values as follows.

The ascent member is set to the maximum of the ascent metrics
of all characters in the string.
The descent member is set to the maximum of the descent metrics.
The width member is set to the sum of the character-width metrics
of all characters in the string.
For each character in the string,
let W be the sum of the character-width metrics of all characters preceding
it in the string.
Let L be the left-side-bearing metric of the character plus W.
Let R be the right-side-bearing metric of the character plus W.
The lbearing member is set to the minimum L of all characters in the string.
The rbearing member is set to the maximum R.

For fonts defined with linear indexing rather than 2-byte matrix indexing,
each
XChar2b
structure is interpreted as a 16-bit number with byte1 as the
most significant byte.
If the font has no defined default character,
undefined characters in the string are taken to have all zero metrics.

Characters with all zero metrics are ignored.
If the font has no defined default_char,
the undefined characters in the string are also ignored.

XQueryTextExtents
and
XQueryTextExtents16
can generate
BadFont
and
BadGC
errors.

Drawing Text

This section discusses how to draw:

  • Complex text

  • Text characters

  • Image text characters

The fundamental text functions
XDrawText
and
XDrawText16
use the following structures:


typedef struct {
     char *chars;     /* pointer to string */
     int nchars;      /* number of characters */
     int delta;       /* delta between strings */
     Font font;       /* Font to print it in, None don't change */
} XTextItem;


typedef struct {
     XChar2b *chars;     /* pointer to two-byte characters */
     int nchars;         /* number of characters */
     int delta;         /* delta between strings */
     Font font;         /* font to print it in, None don't change */
} XTextItem16;

If the font member is not
None,
the font is changed before printing and also is stored in the GC.
If an error was generated during text drawing,
the previous items may have been drawn.
The baseline of the characters are drawn starting at the x and y
coordinates that you pass in the text drawing functions.

For example, consider the background rectangle drawn by
XDrawImageString.
If you want the upper-left corner of the background rectangle
to be at pixel coordinate (x,y), pass the (x,y + ascent)
as the baseline origin coordinates to the text functions.
The ascent is the font ascent, as given in the
XFontStruct
structure.
If you want the lower-left corner of the background rectangle
to be at pixel coordinate (x,y), pass the (x,y - descent + 1)
as the baseline origin coordinates to the text functions.
The descent is the font descent, as given in the
XFontStruct
structure.

Drawing Complex Text


To draw 8-bit characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawText.

XDrawText(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, XTextItem *items, int nitems);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


items

Specifies an array of text items.


nitems

Specifies the number of text items in the array.

To draw 2-byte characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawText16.

XDrawText16(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, XTextItem16 *items, int nitems);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


items

Specifies an array of text items.


nitems

Specifies the number of text items in the array.

The
XDrawText16
function is similar to
XDrawText
except that it uses 2-byte or 16-bit characters.
Both functions allow complex spacing and font shifts between counted strings.

Each text item is processed in turn.
A font member other than
None
in an item causes the font to be stored in the GC
and used for subsequent text.
A text element delta specifies an additional change
in the position along the x axis before the string is drawn.
The delta is always added to the character origin
and is not dependent on any characteristics of the font.
Each character image, as defined by the font in the GC, is treated as an
additional mask for a fill operation on the drawable.
The drawable is modified only where the font character has a bit set to 1.
If a text item generates a
BadFont
error, the previous text items may have been drawn.

For fonts defined with linear indexing rather than 2-byte matrix indexing,
each
XChar2b
structure is interpreted as a 16-bit number with byte1 as the
most significant byte.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, fill-style, font, subwindow-mode,
clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
and tile-stipple-y-origin.

XDrawText
and
XDrawText16
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadFont,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Drawing Text Characters



To draw 8-bit characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawString.

XDrawString(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, char *string, int length);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


string

Specifies the character string.


length

Specifies the number of characters in the string argument.

To draw 2-byte characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawString16.

XDrawString16(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, XChar2b *string, int length);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


string

Specifies the character string.


length

Specifies the number of characters in the string argument.

Each character image, as defined by the font in the GC, is treated as an
additional mask for a fill operation on the drawable.
The drawable is modified only where the font character has a bit set to 1.
For fonts defined with 2-byte matrix indexing
and used with
XDrawString16,
each byte is used as a byte2 with a byte1 of zero.

Both functions use these GC components:
function, plane-mask, fill-style, font, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin,
clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.
They also use these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground, background, tile, stipple, tile-stipple-x-origin,
and tile-stipple-y-origin.

XDrawString
and
XDrawString16
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Drawing Image Text Characters



Some applications, in particular terminal emulators, need to
print image text in which both the foreground and background bits of
each character are painted.
This prevents annoying flicker on many displays.

To draw 8-bit image text characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawImageString.

XDrawImageString(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, char *string, int length);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


string

Specifies the character string.


length

Specifies the number of characters in the string argument.

To draw 2-byte image text characters in a given drawable, use
XDrawImageString16.

XDrawImageString16(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, int x, int y, XChar2b *string, int length);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
specified drawable and define the origin of the first character.


string

Specifies the character string.


length

Specifies the number of characters in the string argument.

The
XDrawImageString16
function is similar to
XDrawImageString
except that it uses 2-byte or 16-bit characters.
Both functions also use both the foreground and background pixels
of the GC in the destination.

The effect is first to fill a
destination rectangle with the background pixel defined in the GC and then
to paint the text with the foreground pixel.
The upper-left corner of the filled rectangle is at:

[x, y - font-ascent]

The width is:

overall-width

The height is:

font-ascent + font-descent

The overall-width, font-ascent, and font-descent
are as would be returned by
XQueryTextExtents
using gc and string.
The function and fill-style defined in the GC are ignored for these functions.
The effective function is
GXcopy,
and the effective fill-style is
FillSolid.

For fonts defined with 2-byte matrix indexing
and used with
XDrawImageString,
each byte is used as a byte2 with a byte1 of zero.

Both functions use these GC components:
plane-mask, foreground, background, font, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin,
clip-y-origin, and clip-mask.

XDrawImageString
and
XDrawImageString16
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
and
BadMatch
errors.

Transferring Images between Client and Server

Xlib provides functions that you can use to transfer images between a client
and the server.
Because the server may require diverse data formats,
Xlib provides an image object that fully describes the data in memory
and that provides for basic operations on that data.
You should reference the data
through the image object rather than referencing the data directly.
However, some implementations of the Xlib library may efficiently deal with
frequently used data formats by replacing
functions in the procedure vector with special case functions.
Supported operations include destroying the image, getting a pixel,
storing a pixel, extracting a subimage of an image, and adding a constant
to an image (see section 16.8).

All the image manipulation functions discussed in this section make use of
the
XImage
structure,
which describes an image as it exists in the client's memory.


typedef struct _XImage {
     int width, height;         /* size of image */
     int xoffset;               /* number of pixels offset in X direction */
     int format;                /* XYBitmap, XYPixmap, ZPixmap */
     char *data;                /* pointer to image data */
     int byte_order;            /* data byte order, LSBFirst, MSBFirst */
     int bitmap_unit;           /* quant. of scanline 8, 16, 32 */
     int bitmap_bit_order;      /* LSBFirst, MSBFirst */
     int bitmap_pad;            /* 8, 16, 32 either XY or ZPixmap */
     int depth;                 /* depth of image */
     int bytes_per_line;        /* accelerator to next scanline */
     int bits_per_pixel;        /* bits per pixel (ZPixmap) */
     unsigned long red_mask;    /* bits in z arrangement */
     unsigned long green_mask;
     unsigned long blue_mask;
     XPointer obdata;           /* hook for the object routines to hang on */
     struct funcs {             /* image manipulation routines */
          struct _XImage *(*create_image)();
          int             (*destroy_image)();
          unsigned long   (*get_pixel)();
          int             (*put_pixel)();
          struct _XImage  *(*sub_image)();
          int            (*add_pixel)();
     } f;
} XImage;

To initialize the image manipulation routines of an image structure, use
XInitImage.

Status XInitImage(XImage *image);


ximage

Specifies the image.

The
XInitImage
function initializes the internal image manipulation routines of an
image structure, based on the values of the various structure members.
All fields other than the manipulation routines must already be initialized.
If the bytes_per_line member is zero,
XInitImage
will assume the image data is contiguous in memory and set the
bytes_per_line member to an appropriate value based on the other
members; otherwise, the value of bytes_per_line is not changed.
All of the manipulation routines are initialized to functions
that other Xlib image manipulation functions need to operate on the
type of image specified by the rest of the structure.

This function must be called for any image constructed by the client
before passing it to any other Xlib function.
Image structures created or returned by Xlib do not need to be
initialized in this fashion.

This function returns a nonzero status if initialization of the
structure is successful. It returns zero if it detected some error
or inconsistency in the structure, in which case the image is not changed.

To combine an image with a rectangle of a drawable on the display,
use
XPutImage.

XPutImage(Display *display, Drawable d, GC gc, XImage *image, int src_x, int src_y, int dest_x, int dest_y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


gc

Specifies the GC.


image

Specifies the image you want combined with the rectangle.


src_x

Specifies the offset in X from the left edge of the image defined
by the
XImage
structure.


src_y

Specifies the offset in Y from the top edge of the image defined
by the
XImage
structure.


dest_x


dest_y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and are the coordinates of the subimage.


width


height

Specify the width and height of the subimage, which define the dimensions
of the rectangle.

The
XPutImage
function
combines an image with a rectangle of the specified drawable.
The section of the image defined by the src_x, src_y, width, and height
arguments is drawn on the specified part of the drawable.
If
XYBitmap
format is used, the depth of the image must be one,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
The foreground pixel in the GC defines the source for the one bits in the image,
and the background pixel defines the source for the zero bits.
For
XYPixmap
and
ZPixmap,
the depth of the image must match the depth of the drawable,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

If the characteristics of the image (for example, byte_order and bitmap_unit)
differ from what the server requires,
XPutImage
automatically makes the appropriate
conversions.

This function uses these GC components:
function, plane-mask, subwindow-mode, clip-x-origin, clip-y-origin,
and clip-mask.
It also uses these GC mode-dependent components:
foreground and background.

XPutImage
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

To return the contents of a rectangle in a given drawable on the display,
use
XGetImage.
This function specifically supports rudimentary screen dumps.

XImage *XGetImage(Display *display, Drawable d, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned long plane_mask, int format);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and define the upper-left corner of the rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height of the subimage, which define the dimensions
of the rectangle.


plane_mask

Specifies the plane mask.


format

Specifies the format for the image.
You can pass
XYPixmap
or
ZPixmap.

The
XGetImage
function returns a pointer to an
XImage
structure.
This structure provides you with the contents of the specified rectangle of
the drawable in the format you specify.
If the format argument is
XYPixmap,
the image contains only the bit planes you passed to the plane_mask argument.
If the plane_mask argument only requests a subset of the planes of the
display, the depth of the returned image will be the number of planes
requested.
If the format argument is
ZPixmap,
XGetImage
returns as zero the bits in all planes not
specified in the plane_mask argument.
The function performs no range checking on the values in plane_mask and ignores
extraneous bits.

XGetImage
returns the depth of the image to the depth member of the
XImage
structure.
The depth of the image is as specified when the drawable was created,
except when getting a subset of the planes in
XYPixmap
format, when the depth is given by the number of bits set to 1 in plane_mask.

If the drawable is a pixmap,
the given rectangle must be wholly contained within the pixmap,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If the drawable is a window,
the window must be viewable,
and it must be the case that if there were no inferiors or overlapping windows,
the specified rectangle of the window would be fully visible on the screen
and wholly contained within the outside edges of the window,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
Note that the borders of the window can be included and read with
this request.
If the window has backing-store, the backing-store contents are
returned for regions of the window that are obscured by noninferior
windows.
If the window does not have backing-store,
the returned contents of such obscured regions are undefined.
The returned contents of visible regions of inferiors
of a different depth than the specified window's depth are also undefined.
The pointer cursor image is not included in the returned contents.
If a problem occurs,
XGetImage
returns NULL.

XGetImage
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

To copy the contents of a rectangle on the display
to a location within a preexisting image structure, use
XGetSubImage.

XImage *XGetSubImage(Display *display, Drawable d, int x, int y, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned long plane_mask, int format, XImage *dest_image, int dest_x, int dest_y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


d

Specifies the drawable.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
drawable and define the upper-left corner of the rectangle.


width


height

Specify the width and height of the subimage, which define the dimensions
of the rectangle.


plane_mask

Specifies the plane mask.


format

Specifies the format for the image.
You can pass
XYPixmap
or
ZPixmap.


dest_image

Specifies the destination image.


dest_x


dest_y

Specify the x and y coordinates, which are relative to the origin of the
destination rectangle, specify its upper-left corner, and determine where
the subimage is placed in the destination image.

The
XGetSubImage
function updates dest_image with the specified subimage in the same manner as
XGetImage.
If the format argument is
XYPixmap,
the image contains only the bit planes you passed to the plane_mask argument.
If the format argument is
ZPixmap,
XGetSubImage
returns as zero the bits in all planes not
specified in the plane_mask argument.
The function performs no range checking on the values in plane_mask and ignores
extraneous bits.
As a convenience,
XGetSubImage
returns a pointer to the same
XImage
structure specified by dest_image.

The depth of the destination
XImage
structure must be the same as that of the drawable.
If the specified subimage does not fit at the specified location
on the destination image, the right and bottom edges are clipped.
If the drawable is a pixmap,
the given rectangle must be wholly contained within the pixmap,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If the drawable is a window,
the window must be viewable,
and it must be the case that if there were no inferiors or overlapping windows,
the specified rectangle of the window would be fully visible on the screen
and wholly contained within the outside edges of the window,
or a
BadMatch
error results.
If the window has backing-store,
then the backing-store contents are returned for regions of the window
that are obscured by noninferior windows.
If the window does not have backing-store,
the returned contents of such obscured regions are undefined.
The returned contents of visible regions of inferiors
of a different depth than the specified window's depth are also undefined.
If a problem occurs,
XGetSubImage
returns NULL.

XGetSubImage
can generate
BadDrawable,
BadGC,
BadMatch,
and
BadValue
errors.

Chapter 9. Window and Session Manager Functions

Table of Contents

Changing the Parent of a WindowControlling the Lifetime of a WindowManaging Installed ColormapsSetting and Retrieving the Font Search PathGrabbing the ServerKilling ClientsControlling the Screen SaverControlling Host AccessAdding, Getting, or Removing HostsChanging, Enabling, or Disabling Access Control

Although it is difficult to categorize functions as exclusively for an application,
a window manager, or a session manager, the functions in this chapter are most
often used by window managers and session managers. It is not expected that
these functions will be used by most application programs. Xlib provides
management functions to:

  • Change the parent of a window

  • Control the lifetime of a window

  • Manage installed colormaps

  • Set and retrieve the font search path

  • Grab the server

  • Kill a client

  • Control the screen saver

  • Control host access

Changing the Parent of a Window

To change a window's parent to another window on the same screen, use
XReparentWindow.
There is no way to move a window between screens.

XReparentWindow(Display *display, Window w, Window parent, int x, int y);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window.


parent

Specifies the parent window.


x


y

Specify the x and y coordinates of the position in the new parent window.

If the specified window is mapped,
XReparentWindow
automatically performs an
UnmapWindow
request on it, removes it from its current position in the hierarchy,
and inserts it as the child of the specified parent.
The window is placed in the stacking order on top with respect to
sibling windows.

After reparenting the specified window,
XReparentWindow
causes the X server to generate a
ReparentNotify
event.
The override_redirect member returned in this event is
set to the window's corresponding attribute.
Window manager clients usually should ignore this window if this member
is set to
True.
Finally, if the specified window was originally mapped,
the X server automatically performs a
MapWindow
request on it.

The X server performs normal exposure processing on formerly obscured
windows.
The X server might not generate
Expose
events for regions from the initial
UnmapWindow
request that are immediately obscured by the final
MapWindow
request.
A
BadMatch
error results if:

  • The new parent window is not on the same screen as
    the old parent window.

  • The new parent window is the specified window or an inferior of the
    specified window.

  • The new parent is
    InputOnly,
    and the window is not.

  • The specified window has a
    ParentRelative
    background, and the new parent window is not the same depth as the
    specified window.

XReparentWindow
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

Controlling the Lifetime of a Window

The save-set of a client is a list of other clients' windows that,
if they are inferiors of one of the client's windows at connection close,
should not be destroyed and should be remapped if they are unmapped.
For further information about close-connection processing,
see section 2.6.
To allow an application's window to survive when a window manager that
has reparented a window fails,
Xlib provides the save-set functions that you can
use to control the longevity of subwindows
that are normally destroyed when the parent is destroyed.
For example, a window manager that wants to add decoration
to a window by adding a frame might reparent an application's
window.
When the frame is destroyed,
the application's window should not be destroyed
but be returned to its previous place in the window hierarchy.

The X server automatically removes windows from the save-set
when they are destroyed.

To add or remove a window from the client's save-set, use
XChangeSaveSet.

XChangeSaveSet(Display *display, Window w, int change_mode);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window that you want to add to or delete from the client's
save-set.


change_mode

Specifies the mode.
You can pass
SetModeInsert
or
SetModeDelete.

Depending on the specified mode,
XChangeSaveSet
either inserts or deletes the specified window from the client's save-set.
The specified window must have been created by some other client,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XChangeSaveSet
can generate
BadMatch,
BadValue,
and
BadWindow
errors.

To add a window to the client's save-set, use
XAddToSaveSet.

XAddToSaveSet(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window that you want to add to the client's save-set.

The
XAddToSaveSet
function adds the specified window to the client's save-set.
The specified window must have been created by some other client,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XAddToSaveSet
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

To remove a window from the client's save-set, use
XRemoveFromSaveSet.

XRemoveFromSaveSet(Display *display, Window w);


display

Specifies the connection to the X server.


w

Specifies the window that you want to delete from the client's save-set.

The
XRemoveFromSaveSet
function removes the specified window from the client's save-set.
The specified window must have been created by some other client,
or a
BadMatch
error results.

XRemoveFromSaveSet
can generate
BadMatch
and
BadWindow
errors.

Managing Installed Colormaps

The X server maintains a list of installed colormaps.
Windows using these colormaps are guaranteed to display with
correct colors; windows using other colormaps may or may not display
with correct colors.
Xlib provides functions that you can use to install a colormap,
uninstall a colormap, and obtain a list of installed colormaps.

At any time,
there is a subset of the installed maps that is viewed as an ordered list
and is called the required list.
The length of the required list is at most M,
where M is the minimum number of installed colormaps specified for the screen
in the connection setup.
The required list is maintained as follows.
When a colormap is specified to